All through the night

All through the night
Racma M. Abdul

By: Mary Higgins Clark

Introduction

A desperate mother. Her missing child. A stolen chalice.
With Silent Night, Mary Higgins Clark, America’s own Queen of Suspense, gave her readers their best Christmas present ever.
Now, with All Through the Night, she once again celebrates the Christmas season with a tale of suspense that will keep readers turning the pages — all through the night. At the center of the novel are two of Mary Higgins Clark’s most beloved characters, Alvirah, the lottery winner turned amateur sleuth, and her husband, Willy, both of them caught up in a Christmas mystery that calls on all of Alvirah’s deductive powers, as well as Willy’s world-class common sense.
The story begins when a young unmarried woman leaves her newborn child on the rectory doorstep at a church on the Upper West Side of Manhattan. At the same moment, inside the church, a young man is stealing a treasured artifact, a chalice adorned with a single star-shaped diamond. Both the infant and the chalice disappear.
Seven years later, a few weeks before Christmas, Alvirah and Willy are busy helping Willy’s sister Cordelia, a nun who runs a thrift shop that doubles as an after-school shelter for neighborhood kids, prepare for the upcoming Christmas pageant. The future of the shelter is threatened, however, when the city condemns the building for that use, and it is further jeopardized when a nearby brownstone to which the shelter was to be moved turns out to have been willed to a young couple who were tenants in the building. Alvirah refuses to believe that the will is genuine and sets out to prove that the couple are con artists. Soon she is involved in the mystery of the chalice and the child. .
Characterization
Clark brings back two of her most popular characters, Alvirah, the former cleaning woman, now lottery winner turned amateur detective, and Alvirah’s stoic husband, Willy. The story opens with a young, unmarried woman who abandons her newborn child on the steps of a church on the Upper West Side of Manhattan; at the same time, inside the church, a thief is stealing a diamond-embedded chalice. While making his escape, the thief notices the baby in the stroller and takes off with the infant, disappearing into the night. Seven years later, during the Christmas season, Alvirah, caught in the thick of another mystery, becomes involved in the matter of the missing chalice and the child stolen from the rectory steps, and as usual, she soon has the whole business sorted out very neatly. A short, easy read that Clark’s many fans will be asking for. –Kathleen Hughes

Plot
Sondra stood in the doorway of a townhouse across the street from the church. The building was under repair, and the temporary scaffolding around the street level shielded her from the view of passersby. She wanted to be sure that Monsignor had left the church and was in the rectory before she left the baby. She had been attending services at St. Clement’s for the last couple of days and had become familiar with his routine. She also knew that during Advent he would now be conducting a seven o’clock recitation of the rosary service.

Weak from the strain and fatigue of the birth only hours earlier, her breasts swelling with the fluid that preceded her milk, she leaned against the door frame for support. A faint whimper from beneath her partially buttoned coat made her arms move in the rocking motion instinctive to mothers.

On a plain sheet of paper that she would leave with the baby she had written everything she could safely reveal: “Please give my little girl to a good and loving family to raise. Her father is of Italian descent; my grandparents were born in Ireland. Neither family has any hereditary diseases that I am aware of, so she should be healthy. I love her, but I cannot take care of her. If she asks about me someday, show her this note, please. Tell her that the happiest hours of my life will always be the ones when I held her in my arms after she was born. For those moments it was just the two of us, alone in the world.”
Sondra felt her throat close as she spotted the tall, slightly stooped figure of the monsignor emerge from the church and walk directly to the adjacent rectory. It was time.

She had bought baby clothes and supplies, including a couple of shirts, a long nightgown, booties and a hooded jacket, bottles of formula and disposable diapers. She had wrapped the baby papoose-style, in two receiving blankets and a heavy woolen robe, but because the night was so cold, at the last minute she had brought along a brown paper shopping bag. She had read somewhere that paper was a good

Art and delivery
Clark’s second holiday tale of suspense and sentiment opens with a young unmarried woman leaving her newborn baby on the steps of a church on Manhattan’s Upper West Side. At the same time, a young man steals the church’s precious chalice. Both the child and the chalice then disappear, and it’s up to Alvirah, Clark’s lottery winner turned sleuth, and husband Willy to solve the mystery.

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Book Review

By: Gerojames Cobol

Mrs. Bridge; a Great Mother

Author: Evan S. Connell

 

Mrs. Bridge has her husband ‘Mr. Bridge’ – and her three children, Ruth, Carolyn and Douglas. Her children threaten Mrs. Bridge’s equilibrium, as in the extraordinary scenes where Douglas, like Jocelin in Golding’s The Spire, begins to build an enormous tower from scrap in the family garden: a metaphor for the everyday tragedy of children growing away from their parents’ reach. As Ruth grows away from her as children must Mrs. Bridge wonders, “Are you mine? Is my daughter mine?” A quietly devastating portrayal of a housewife shorn of all personality or free will, raising her typical kids in a typical Midwestern breadbasket under the aegis of her all-powerful husband (who has a sequel in which to express his own typicality). The effect is similar to the poetic melodrama of The Book of Disquiet, but with a more lightly mocking and tender-heartedly sympathetic tone, and less insufferable moaning posing as philosophical profundity.

Characterization

The central focus of Evan Connell’s Mrs. Bridge is the protagonist’s uncertainty about her own identity and about the meaning and purpose of her life. The first sentences of the book, linked to the epigraph from Walt Whitman, establish this emphasis: “Her first name was India, she was never able to get used to it. It seemed to her that her parents must have been thinking of someone else when they named her.” In her own eyes, and in those of the narrator of Connell’s novel, from the start of the book she is “Mrs.” Bridge, wife of the successful lawyer Walter Bridge, mother of his three children Ruth, Carolyn, and Douglas Bridge and a typical female member of her upper-middle-class circle in Kansas City, Missouri. Depending for her identity upon the stability of the social milieu in which she lives, Mrs. Bridge, as her way of life and the values of her class come under fire in the two decades before World War II, experiences boredom, a sense of purposelessness, and eventually even a vaguely terrifying sense of isolation.

There are so many examples of Connell’s brilliant character bites that it’s difficult to come up with a representative few that can illustrate. These tidbits did not constitute a plot, but they were interesting enough in their own right to keep the narrative lively. Characters other than Mrs. Bridge were profiled, too, including her family, servants and friends.

 

Plot

In the novel’s short, themed chapters, there are occasionally flashes of Saki’s dark, abrupt wit. At one point, we find Mr. and Mrs. Bridge discussing a former neighbor’s child, Tarquin, who seems to have got up to no good in a manner that has made the local newspaper headlines. They remark that they knew he was a “bad sort” when they heard him calling his parents by their middle name. Only at the end of the chapter are we casually informed that the no good he has got up to is shooting both his parents dead. Later, it seems Mrs. Bridge is finally getting in touch with the sadness she feels about the lack of physical warmth in her marriage and, with great effort, prepares to speak to Walter about it. When he arrives home that night, before he has chance to speak, he announces “I see you forgot to have the car lubricated” and we never hear of the matter again.

Mrs. Bridge is the wife of a successful Kansas City attorney and the mother of three children. The book is a series of short chapters set between the wars we learn about her life. Mrs. Bridge yearns for a life of meaning, of something to do besides attends teas and dinner parties. At times, she comes close to giving herself permission to experience life, but she never quite manages to do so. She is in the midst of an existential crisis, although she would have no idea what that term means. Mrs. Bridge is both devastating and maddening, as we watch her come so close to making something of herself.

 

Arts and Delivery

The book has its share of dramatic events, but nearly all of them happen “offstage,” with the characters describing what happened or trying to piece together what has gone on. Most of the narrative and dialogue focus on everyday tasks, rainy days, and small talk. Weirdly, this novel reminds me of the nonfiction Love, Loss, and What I Wore, which is not nearly as polished or as powerful but has a similar sense of detachment.

This book is such a pleasure to read that it took me a second reading to realize how enviously brilliant the writing is. EVERYTHING is ironic! Another reader said it’s amazing that a book can be such a tragedy when nothing tragic appears to happen. The author used descriptive text to further give more heart fell scenarios in the story. I like the font’s type and size. However, I being confuse of its cover because it’s not portraying to the story. The girl in the photo is smiling and the whole story is full of tragedy. It’s doesn’t make sense, in the one hand; it’s good if the whole family puts in the cover of the book.

 

Final Verdict

There was a wonderful sense of the minutiae of daily living and of time passing along in tiny driblets but also a real sense of frustration that Mrs. Bridge was never able to articulate the little disappointments of her life. I want to give one perfect star      for the author for his memorable fiction story. I enjoy reading the story as even I vastly scan it because I am in the deadline of submission on the book review.

Research Proposal

EFFECTS OF EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN SOUTHERN CHRISTIAN COLLEGE

By: Gerojames Cobol

CHAPTER 1

NATURE AND ITS BACKGROUND

 

 Introduction

The way children choose to spend their free time can affect their school performance; it is not simply traditional in- class instruction that affect academic achievement (Stephen & Schaben, 2002).

The development of extracurricular activities was slow in the beginning, with many seeing it simply as a fad that would pass and quickly fade out of style (Milliard, 1930). Many extracurricular activities have proven to be beneficial in building and strengthening academic achievement, even if the activities are not obviously related to academic subjects (Marsh & Kleitman, 2002).

The problems of our research are to know the effects of extracurricular activities on academic performance and what extracurricular activities affect their academic performance. There is a need to conduct this study so that we will be able to know the impacts in the Senior High School students because as we know there are students who failed in class and students who excel in class for being involved in extracurricular activities either inside or outside the campus of Southern Christian College.

 

Statement of the Problem

The purpose of the study will seek answers to these following questions:

  1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents?
  2. What are the effects of extracurricular activities in the academic performance?
  3. What are the top 3 extracurricular activities affect the students’ academic performance?

 

Objectives of the Study

This study aims to determine the various effects of extracurricular activities they participated in the school and at the same time to identify the top 3 extracurricular activities they participated.

 

 

 

Significance of the Study

           

The following will be the beneficiaries of this study:

Students.  They will be able to understand the importance of the academic excellence and extracurricular activities in their school performance.

Teachers. They will be able to recognize who are the students active in extracurricular activities and in academic performance.

Parents. They will be able to help their children to manage their time in involving themselves in academic performance and extracurricular activities.

Future Researchers.  This will serve as their reference tool in their related topic and studies.

 

Scope and Limitations of the Study

This study will be conducted at Southern Christian College, Quezon Avenue, Poblacion5, Midsayap, and Cotabato. The study will used descriptive method design. There will be 85 respondents overall but 5 respondents only in every section that should be taken from Grade 11 Senior High School students and it will be conducted on February 15, 2017.

 

Review of Related Literature

 

This chapter presents some major concepts, ideas, and findings on the effects of extracurricular activities on academic performance of Senior High School Students.

 

Academic Performance

According to IGI Global (2017), academic performance is defined by students’ reporting of past semester CGPA/GPA and their expected GPA for the current semester. The GPA is better measurement because it provides a greater insight into the relative level of performance of individuals and different group of students.

The influence of parent involvement on academic success had not only been noted among researchers, but also among policy makers who have integrated efforts aimed at increasing parent involvement into broader educational policy initiative.

 

Extracurricular Activities

Allowing your child to get involved in extracurricular activities, these activities a school is a wise choice and it can be very important in helping them to develop many working skills, people skills and more.

Nemours Organization (2001) stated that the participating in extracurricular activities helps you in other ways. It looks good on job applications and shows admission officers and employers you’re well-rounded and responsible.

Brenzel (2017) emphasized that extracurricular also play a part when you apply to colleges. Most college applications ask about your activities. That

 

Importance of Extracurricular Activities

Extracurricular activities allow students to develop leadership, create lasting friendships, give back to their community, give back to their community, belong to their community, belong to the school family, and find success outside of the classroom. Extracurricular activities can enhance a student’s life, and they can give the students additional skills that they will use for the remainder of their lives.

Impact on Students’ Achievement

The impact that participation in extracurricular activities has on student achievement has been debated for several years. According to Eccles and Barber (1999), adolescents who are involved in extracurricular activities achieve at higher rates than children who are not involve in activities.

A study conducted by Hass (2004), activities Director at Ogilvie High School, concluded that participation in extracurricular activities did have a positive impact on student achievement. He states that participating in sports socializes adolescents in ways that promotes educational success.

 

CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOY

 

This chapter describes the research design, locale of the study, respondents of the study, research design, data gathering procedures, and data analysis.

 

Research design

The researchers in the study will use descriptive research design focuses on the effects of extracurricular activities to the academic performance among the Senior High School Students at Southern Christian College.

 

Locale of the Study

This study will be conducted at Southern Christian College, Midsayap, Cotabato during the academic year 2016-2017. It is owned by the United Church of Christ in the Philippines (UCCP) church and private institution located at Poblacion 5, Midsayap, Cotobato.

 

Respondents of the Study

The respondents of the study will be taken from Grade 11 Senior High School students of Southern Christian College where the researchers will have five (5) students in every section and either male or female.

 

Sampling Design

The sampling design was used is quota sampling

 

Research Instrument

This study will use a researcher-made questionnaire in gathering data. This will be administered during the second semester of the academic year 2016-2017. The instruments will be composed of three (3) parts; part I will seek the profile of the respondents; part II will seek the top (3) three  activities in where the Senior High School students participated most; part III will seek the effects of extracurricular activities in academic performance.

 

Data Gathering Procedure

Before the conduct of the research, a letter will be sent to the Senior High School principal for the approval to administer the questionnaire to the students. After the approval the questionnaire will be administered to the respondents with the researchers guiding them through the items.

 

Data Analysis

The data collection concerning Part I for the respondents will be analyzed using simple frequency and percentage count. Part II for seeking the top (3) three activities in where the Senior High School students participated most will be tabulate and analyze using percentage and rank. Part III seeking the effects of extracurricular activities in academic performance will be tabulate and analyze using mean, standard deviation and the description by using number scale.

Number scale:

1 – 1.49            Disagree

1.5 – 2.49          Strongly Disagree

2.5 – 3.49         Agree

3.5 – 4.00          Strongly Agree

 

 

 

 

Work Schedule

 

Activities November December January February March
Concept and Instrument Development   **********

**********

*********

Proposal Defense ********

*********

*********

Data Collection     **********

*********

**********

 

Data analysis

***********

**********

**********

 

Final Defense

  *********

*********

********

 

Budgetary Requirements

 

Expenditures Second Semester

(2016-2017)

Printing of materials P 150.00
Plastic folders P 40.00
Fare and meals during the gathering of data P 150.00
Total Php. 340.00

 

LITERATURE CITED

 

Brenzel J. K.  (2017). Theories on Participation and Student Achievement. Retrieved from            http://www.Ogilviehighschool.org on November 5, 2016

 

Burgess, J. (2009). Extracurricular School Activities and the Benefits. Retrieved from           http://education.more4kids.info/168/extracurricular-school-activities/ on November 5, 2016

 

Eccles, J., & Barber, B. (1999). Student council, volunteering, basketball, or marching          band:   What    kind of extracurricular involvement matters? Retrieved from Journal of         Adolescent Research,  14, 10-43.on on November 5, 2016

 

Gholson, R. E. (1985). Student achievement and cocurricular participation. Retrieved           from    NASSP Bulletin, 69 (483), p.17-20.o on November 5, 2016

 

Hass, D. (2004). Theories on Participation and Student Achievement. Retrieved from           www.Ogilviehighschool.org on November 5, 2016

 

IGI Global (2017). What is Academic Performance? Retrieved from http://www.igi   global.com/dictionary/academic-performance/42383 on November 5, 2016.

 

Joekel, R. G. (1985). Student activities and academic eligibility requirements. Retrieved        from    NASS   Bulletin, 69 (483), 3-9.on November 5, 2016.

 

Kleitman R. (2002). What is Academic Performance? Retrieved from http://www.igi global.com/dictionary/academic-performance/42383 on November 5, 2016

 

Klesse, E. (2004. The value of Co-curricular Activities. Retrieved from.www.nassp.org/portals/0/content/48943.pdf on7 on November 5, 2016

 

Mahoney, J. L. & Cairns, R. B (1997) Do extracurricular activities protect against early        school  dropout?  Retrieved from http://www.artsedsearch.org/summaries/do        extracurricular activities-protect-against-early-school-dropout on November 5, 2016

 

Marsh H.W., & Kleitman, S. (2002). Extracurricular School Activities. The Good, the          Bad,     and the Nonlinear. Retrieved  from http://hepg.org/her-home/issues/harvard         educational      review-volume-72-issue-4/herarticle/the-good,-the-bad,-and-the            nonlinear_40 on November 5, 2016

 

Milliard B. (1930). The value of Co-curricular Activities. Retrieved from           www.nassp.org/portals/0/content/48943.pdf on7 on November 5, 2016.

S

Nemours Organization (2001).Extracurricular Activities. Retrieved from                   http://m.kidshealth.org/en/teens/involved-school.html on November 5, 2016

 

Reynols D. (2006) Student activities and academic eligibility requirements. Retrieved            from    NASS   Bulletin, 69 (483), 3-9.on November 5, 2016

.

Stephens, L. J.,  & Schaben, L. A. (2002). The effect of interscholastic sports           participation     on academic achievement of middle level school activities. Retrieved from National          Association of Secondary School Principals Bulletin, p.   86, 34-42 on November 5, 2016

 

Simon, B., (2001). Family Involvement in High School: Predictors and Effects.         Retrieved         from            http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/019263650108562702 on November 5, 2016

 

Williams, E. (2017). What Is the Meaning of Academic Performance? Retrieved from           http://work.chron.com/meaning-academic-performance-17332.html  on November 5, 2016.

 

 

Research Report

 By: Gerojames Cobol

Effects of Extracurricular Activities on Academic performance of the Grade 11 Senior High School students of Southern Christian College.

 

Abstract. This research aimed to develop the performance of the student both in extracurricular activities and in academics. Specifically, it determined the following: demographic profile of the respondents, effects of extracurricular activities on academic performance and the top 3 extracurricular activities in which most of the students’ participated.

The study used the descriptive research design. Respondents of the study consisted of eighty-five (85) students of Southern Christian College in Quezon Avenue, Poblacion 5, Midsayap, Cotabato during the second semester of school year 2016-2017. Pertinent data were obtained from the responses of the respondents. The statistical tools used were descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation, frequency and distribution and percentile and rank.

The major research findings are briefly stated as follows: the demographic profile of the respondents are composed of thirty-five (35) males with a percentage of forty-one percent  (41%) and fifty (50) females with a percentage of fifty-nine percent (59%) , the top 3 extracurricular activities of the respondents are sports, Senior High School Student Council (SHSSC) and academic quiz. In addition, the Grade 11 Senior High School students agreed that the extracurricular activities help to improve the physical, cognitive and psychological aspect of the student. On the other hand, the respondents strongly disagree that extracurricular activities helps to get low grades.

The researchers concluded that sports, Senior High School Student Council (SHSSC) and academic quiz are the top 3 choices of the Senior High School students in where most of them participated on the said activity. The extracurricular activities were found to have improved the performance of the Grade 11 Senior High School students. Evidently, the majority of the respondents get good benefit by the help of extracurricular activities they participated and joined.

Key words:  extracurricular activities, academic performance and Senior High School students.

 




Introduction. Music, parental involvement, and sports influence the children on how they perform academically. The way children choose to spend their free time can affect their school performance; it is not simply traditional in- class instruction that affect academic achievement (Stephen & Schaben, 2002).

In addition to co- curricular or extracurricular activities, “ analyses revealed that regardless of students’ background and prior achievement, various parenting, volunteering, and home learning activities positively influenced students grades” (Simon, 2001).

The development of extracurricular activities was slow in the beginning, with many seeing it simply as a fad that would pass and quickly fade out of style (Milliard, 1930). Many extracurricular activities have proven to be beneficial in building and strengthening academic achievement, even if the activities are not obviously related to academic subjects (Marsh & Kleitman, 2002). “A number of studies revealed that the students participating in extracurricular activities did better academically than the students who did not participate” (Marsh & Kleitman, 2002).

In this day and age there are so many activities for the child to choose from being engaged in more than one activity on a school might not rare .Others, including Stephens and Schaben (2002) stated “the fact remains that the students involved in co- curricular activities, especially interscholastic sports, perform better than those who are not involved. Studies have shown a positive association between activities and academics.

Gholson (1985) stated “there is a positive correlation between student involvement in curricular activities and success in non-academic pursuits following high school. It is evident that children who participate well in these activities have greater success in school, as well as, later in life. Joekel (1985) pointed out that achievement in co-curricular activities is a factor that can predict success in life beyond in school (Stephen & Schaben, 2002). However, not all students are great athletes or have exceptional talents.

The problems of our research are to know the effects of extracurricular activities on academic performance and what extracurricular activities affect their academic performance. There is a need to conduct this study so that we will be able to know the impacts in the Senior High School students because as we know there are students who failed in class and students who excel in class for being involved in extracurricular activities either inside or outside the campus of Southern Christian College.

 

Statement of the Problem

The purpose of the study will seek answers to these following questions:

  1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents?
  2. What are the effects of extracurricular activities in the academic performance?
  3. What are the top 3 extracurricular activities affect the students’ academic performance?

 

Objectives of the Study

This study aims to determine the various effects of extracurricular activities they participated in the school and at the same time to identify the top 3 extracurricular activities they participated.

 

Significance of the Study

The following will be the beneficiaries of this study:

Students.  They will be able to understand the importance of the academic excellence and extracurricular activities in their school performance.

Teachers. They will be able to recognize who are the students active in extracurricular activities and in academic performance.

Parents. They will be able to help their children to manage their time in involving themselves in academic performance and extracurricular activities.

Future Researchers.  This will serve as their reference tool in their related topic and studies.

 

Scope and Limitations of the Study

This study will be conducted at Southern Christian College, Quezon Avenue, Poblacion5, Midsayap, and Cotabato. The study will used descriptive method design. There will be 85 respondents overall but 5 respondents only in every section that should be taken from Grade 11 Senior High School students and it will be conducted on February 15, 2017.

 

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

 

This chapter presents some major concepts, ideas, and findings on the effects of extracurricular activities on academic performance of Senior High School Students.

 

Academic Performance

People often consider grades first when evaluating academic achievement. This includes schools, which rank students by their GPA, awarding special designations such as valedictorian and salutatorian for those first and second in their class. Scholarship organizations and universities also start by looking at grades, as do some employers, especially when hiring recent graduates. Grades carry more weight in some industries, especially technical professions such as laws, medicine and finance. Other industries place less importance on GPA, particularly creative professions such as writing or art and occupations such as sales where people skills are more crucial than technical knowledge. (Williams, 2017)

According to IGI Global (2017), academic performance is defined by students’ reporting of past semester CGPA/GPA and their expected GPA for the current semester. The grade point average or GPA is now used by most of the tertiary institutions as convenient summary measure of the academic performance of their students. The GPA is better measurement because it provides a greater insight into the relative level of performance of individuals and different group of students.

Parent involvement in a child’s early education is consistently to be positively associated with a child’s academic performance. Specifically, children whose parents are more involved in their education have higher levels of academic performance than children whose parents involved to lesser degree. The influence of parent involvement on academic success had not only been noted among researchers, but also among policy makers who have integrated efforts aimed at increasing parent involvement into broader educational policy initiative.

 

Extracurricular Activities

There are many high schools out there today that provide a plenty of extracurricular activities. Some occur before school, and a few may even take place on the weekends. While sections are a bit dubious about their children participating in extracurricular activities, these activities usually bring with them many benefits. Allowing your child to get involved in extracurricular activities, these activities a school is a wise choice and it can be very important in helping them to develop many working skills, people skills and more. Of course, while a few activities are a great idea, there is a point where you need to draw a line. Here is a closer look at some of the benefits of extracurricular activities for your child, and how you can know when these activities become too much (Burgess, 2009).

Some of the brightest students don’t earn straight as but are extremely well-rounded, succeeding everything from music to athletics. The ability to master a diverse set of skills illustrates intelligence, curiosity and persistence, qualities attractive to universities and employers. Some colleges will admit and even award scholarships to students who earned average grades but display a pattern of achievement by consistently learning new skills. Many businesses also see this as a selling point, thinking these candidates are eager to learn and will easy to train.

Nemours Organization (2001) stated that the participating in extracurricular activities helps you in other ways. It looks good on job applications and shows admission officers and employers you’re well-rounded and responsible. Brenzel (2017) emphasized that extracurricular also play a part when you apply to colleges. Most college applications ask about your activities. That’s because the things you do in your free time reveal a lot about you in ways that grades and test scores can’t. Your accomplishments outside the classroom show what you’re passionate about and that you have qualities valued by colleges. Extracurricular activities appeal student’s interests, according to Mahoney and Cairns (1997) people looked at the positive connection to school that participating in extracurricular activities created among students whose prior commitment to the school had been marginal. They discovered that a wider choice of activities resulted in a stronger affect because students’ individual needs and interests were more likely to be met between participation in extracurricular activities and academic performance, because each one places a different value both on activities and academics.

 

 Importance of Extracurricular Activities

Extracurricular activities are a key component of many schools. Reynols (2006) explained that schools stress many different pillars in trying to create a well-rounded education. Many of these pillars include academics, service, and leadership, fine arts, and athletics. Principals recognize the importance of providing man opportunities for their students to find success. These activities allow students to develop leadership, create lasting friendships, give back to their community, give back to their community, belong to their community, belong to the school family, and find success outside of the classroom. Extracurricular activities can enhance a student’s life, and they can give the students additional skills that they will use for the remainder of their lives.

Klesse (2004) found that there was a positive relationship between participation in extracurricular activities and success in High School, college, career, and the community. Many students need these extracurricular activities to motivate them to be successful in the classroom. Some students earn college scholarships based on their extracurricular activities (sports, fine arts and etc.). Many of these students could not have the opportunity to attend college unless they have enjoyed remarkable success in these activities.

 

Impact on Students’ Achievement

The impact that participation in extracurricular activities has on student achievement has been debated for several years. Some researchers claim that there is a positive impact, and there are some researchers that claim there are negative impacts. There are several different benchmarks to measure this impact at the High School level. Student’s achievements can be measure by examining grade point average (GPA). According to Eccles and Barber (1999), adolescents who are involved in extracurricular activities achieve at higher rates than children who are not involve in activities. A study of 1259 10th Grade adolescents found that involvements in team sports, school leadership groups, school spirit activities, academic clubs, and performing arts resulted in higher GPAs when this students became 12th graders.

A study conducted by Hass (2004), activities Director at Ogilvie High School, concluded that participation in extracurricular activities did have a positive impact on student achievement. He states that participating in sports socializes adolescents in ways that promotes educational success. These results suggest that students need to get involved in the various activities offered in their school settings. The results also revealed that students would have better academic results regardless of their backgrounds if they were involved in extracurricular activities.

 

METHODOLOY

 

This chapter describes the research design, locale of the study, respondents of the study, research design, data gathering procedures, and data analysis.

 

Research design. The researchers in the study will use descriptive research design focuses on the effects of extracurricular activities to the academic performance among the Senior High School Students at Southern Christian College.

 

Locale of the Study.  This study will be conducted at Southern Christian College, Midsayap, Cotabato during the academic year 2016-2017. It is owned by the United Church of Christ in the Philippines (UCCP) church and private institution located at Poblacion 5, Midsayap, Cotobato.

 

Respondents of the Study. The respondents of the study will be taken from Grade 11 Senior High School students of Southern Christian College where the researchers will have five (5) students in every section and either male or female.

 

Research Instrument.  This study will use a researcher-made questionnaire in gathering data. This will be administered during the second semester of the academic year 2016-2017. The instruments will be composed of three (3) parts; part I will seek the profile of the respondents; part II will seek the top (3) three  activities in where the Senior High School students participated most; part III will seek the effects of extracurricular activities in academic performance.

 

Data Gathering Procedure. Before the conduct of the research, a letter will be sent to the Senior High School principal for the approval to administer the questionnaire to the students. After the approval the questionnaire will be administered to the respondents with the researchers guiding them through the items.

 

Data Analysis.  The data collection concerning Part I for the respondents will be analyzed using simple frequency and percentage count. Part II for seeking the top (3) three activities in where the Senior High School students participated most will be tabulate and analyze using percentage and rank. Part III seeking the effects of extracurricular activities in academic performance will be tabulate and analyze using mean, standard deviation and the description by using number scale.

Number scale:

1 – 1.49                        Disagree

1.5 – 2.49           Strongly Disagree

2.5 – 3.49          Agree

3.5 – 4.00          Strongly Agree

 

 

 

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

This chapter presents the results and findings of the study and including the discussion of our result.

 

Demographic Profile of the Respondents

Table 1 show that out of 85 respondents, 50 (59%) were females and 35 (41%) were males. Hence, female respondents are more than male.

 

Sex (f) (%)
Female 50 59
Male 35 41

 

Figure 1. Frequency and percentage distribution of the respondents according to sex.

 

Extracurricular Activities

Table 2. Percentage and rank distribution of extracurricular activities participated

 

 

Extracurricular Activities

# of respondents participated % Rank
Sports 25 29.41 1
SHSSC 20 23.53 2
Academic quiz 19 22.35 3
Linayag Artists 17 20 4
KamFil 15 17.65 5.5
Teknolohia Ambassadors 15 17.65 5.5
Groovers 13 15.29 7
D.A.R.T. Organization 12 14.11 8
Folk dance 11 12.94 9.5
Senior Mathematician Society 11 12.94 9.5
Debate 10 11.76 11
Others 9 10.59 12
Glee Club 8 9.41 13
Ensciencetein 7 8.23 14
Board games 6 7.05 15.5
Hekmatura Club 6 7.05 15.5
JMCG 5 5.88 17
LinguaPedia 4 4.70 18
Oration 3 3.52 19

 

Figure 2 shows the percentage and ranking of the top 3 extracurricular activities of the respondents. Out of 19 extracurricular activities, sports got the highest percentage of 29.41 with a rank of first (1).He states that participating in sports socializes adolescents in ways that promotes educational success (Harry 2008). Top 2 in the ranking is the Senior High School Student Council (SHSSC) with a percentage of 23.53 and top 3 in the ranking is academic quiz with a percentage of 22.35. The result reveals that the top 3 activities that the respondents participated most are the sports, Senior High School Student Council (SHSSC) and academic quiz. There are many high schools out there today that provide a plenty of extracurricular activities in where students participated most (Burgess, 2009).

 

Effects of Extracurricular Activities

Table 3 mean distribution, standard deviation and description on the effects of extracurricular activities

 

Item Mean SD Description
1. Does extracurricular activities have a good impact in your academic performance? 3.03 0.82  

 

Agree

 

2. Does extracurricular activities help you to get good grades?

2.61 0.86  

Agree

 

3. Does extracurricular activities help you to get low grades?

1.74 0.87  

Strongly        Disagree

 

4. Does extracurricular activities give pressure and stress on you?

2.27 0.97  

Strongly Disagree

 

5. Does extracurricular activities help to improve your cognitive, physical, and psychological aspect?

3.33  0.75  

 

Agree

 

Overall Mean                                          2.60                0.85               Agree

          The table 3 used descriptive statistic data to get the result and it shows that the respondents agreed with the item 5 – Does extracurricular activities help to improve your cognitive, physical, and psychological aspect got the highest mean of 3.33 with a standard deviation of 0.75.  According to Eccles and Barber (1999), adolescents who are involved in extracurricular activities achieve at higher rates than children who are not involve in activities. Hass (2004) stated that participation in extracurricular activities did have a positive impact on student achievement. Item 3- Does extracurricular activities help you to get low grades got the lowest mean of 1.74 with a standard deviation of 0.87 where the respondents strongly disagreed that extracurricular activities help to get low grades. The overall mean is 2.60 which mean

 

CONCLUSION

 

Based on the findings of the study, in terms of the extracurricular activities participated by the Grade 11 Senior High School students, the top 3 extracurricular activities based on the result are sports, Senior High School Student Council (SHSSC) and academic quiz.

In terms of the effects of extracurricular activities on academic performance of the respondents, they agreed that item 5- the extracurricular activities help to improve your cognitive, physical, and psychological aspect. The Senior High School Students of Southern Christian College indicates that the extracurricular activities are one of the factors that develop the talent and skills of students. While item 3- Does extracurricular activities help you to get low grades were strongly agreed by the respondents. Extracurricular activities doesn’t give a low grades but rather it helps to get good grades.

 

 References

 

Brenzel J. K.  (2017). Theories on Participation and Student Achievement. Retrieved from              http://www.Ogilviehighschool.org on November 5, 2016

 

Burgess, J. (2009). Extracurricular School Activities and the Benefits. Retrieved from               http://education.more4kids.info/168/extracurricular-school-activities/ on November 5, 2016

 

Eccles, J., & Barber, B. (1999). Student council, volunteering, basketball, or marching        band:     What      kind of   extracurricular involvement matters? Retrieved from Journal of         Adolescent Research,         14, 10-43.on on November 5, 2016

 

Gholson, R. E. (1985). Student achievement and cocurricular participation. Retrieved       from       NASSP   Bulletin, 69 (483), p.17-20.o on November 5, 2016

 

Hass, D. (2004). Theories on Participation and Student Achievement. Retrieved from       www.Ogilviehighschool.org on November 5, 2016

 

IGI Global (2017). What is Academic Performance? Retrieved from http://www.igi            global.com/dictionary/academic-performance/42383 on November 5, 2016

 

Joekel, R. G. (1985). Student activities and academic eligibility requirements. Retrieved    from       NASS     Bulletin, 69 (483), 3-9.on November 5, 2016

Kleitman R. (2002). What is Academic Performance? Retrieved from http://www.igi         global.com/dictionary/academic-performance/42383 on November 5, 2016

 

Klesse, E. (2004. The value of Co-curricular Activities. Retrieved from  www.nassp.org/portals/0/content/48943.pdf on7 on November 5, 2016

 

Mahoney, J. L. & Cairns, R. B (1997) Do extracurricular activities protect against early    school    dropout?  Retrieved from http://www.artsedsearch.org/summaries/do  extracurricular      activities-protect-against-early-school-dropout on November 5, 2016

 

Marsh H.W., & Kleitman, S. (2002). Extracurricular School Activities. The Good, the        Bad,       and the  Nonlinear. Retrieved from http://hepg.org/her-home/issues/harvard       educational           review-volume-72-issue-4/herarticle/the-good,-the-bad,-and-the                nonlinear_40 on November 5, 2016

 

Milliard B. (1930). The value of Co-curricular Activities. Retrieved from               http://www.nassp.org/portals/0/content/48943.pdf on7 on November 5, 2016.

 

Nemours Organization (2001).Extracurricular Activities. Retrieved from                              http://m.kidshealth.org/en/teens/involved-school.html on November 5, 2016

 

Reynols D. (2006) Student activities and academic eligibility requirements. Retrieved        from       NASS     Bulletin, 69 (483), 3-9.on November 5, 2016

.

Stephens, L. J.,  & Schaben, L. A. (2002). The effect of interscholastic sports        participation         on academic achievement of middle level school activities.         Retrieved from National    Association of Secondary School Principals Bulletin, p.              86, 34-42 on November 5, 2016

 

Simon, B., (2001). Family Involvement in High School: Predictors and Effects. Retrieved               from                http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/019263650108562702 on November 5, 2016

 

Williams, E. (2017). What Is the Meaning of Academic Performance? Retrieved from      http://work.chron.com/meaning-academic-performance-17332.html  on November 5, 2016.

 

THE GODS IN WINTER Wrote by Patricia Miles

Jessamae C. Albiendo

Introduction

            The story about The Gods in the Winter was wrote by Patricia Miles. The story is all about the English family that is caught up in a strangely harsh and long lasting winter, and the Gods of antiquity turn out to be not so moribund at all. It is similar to a mythology in Greek times about Persephone, Demeter and Hades. When the Bramble family go to England they experienced a cold weather with their home retainer Mrs. Korngold. They experience also about the mysterious things that Mrs. Korngold have.

Characterization

            The narrator in the story is Adam Bramble, he is a clear, and a straightforward boy. He just like a thoughtful person that other must possessed. A boy who wrote just what he sees in his surroundings. And Mrs. Korngold is the one who take charge to Bramble’s family in one strange winter. Mrs. Bramble can do a mysterious thing within the house. The children of Bramble think that Mrs. Korngold is the one who turn their naughty cousin into a lizard.

Plot

            The story is about the Bramble family it happens from Kent for their new home in the Midlands, it’s started in a fine October last autumn on 1929. There they are, the Bramble family, they are in the way all bowling along northwards from London in a big old-fashioned car. The family was supposed to be complete with three children named Adam, Zach Lottie and the incoming infants named Beth. While the family was travelled along the road. They were puzzled because they reach the cross roads and there is no sign post in it, so they continue in their travelled Mrs. Bramble is the one who drove the car she feel confused because she thinks that they were in the wrong road, her husband was assigned to read the map he assured that they are in a right way. Until they reach the road that liable to subsidence. So they turn their way and go to another road. And at last they reach their new house. It was just an old stone farmhouse that had got swallowed up by the estate. Mr. Bramble was always busy because he was a researcher, Mrs. Bramble need a family retainer to help her to her new baby. She is Mrs. Korngold that no home as her own to go to. And Mrs. Bramble gave her a warm welcomed to their new house and she took her, to her room.

            In cold evening the family was taking their supper, one thing that happen in their foods, when Lottie grabbed her knife and fork eagerly and cut her potato in half she saw a black squelching mass just like a bad bananas. Everyone was pushing their chair back from the table, because they also have a potato like what Lottie saw. And there something wormy things coming out of cheese. All the foods that Mrs. Korngold prepared get maggoty. All felts pretty dismissal except for Mrs. Korngold. She had the strangest reaction, she cut her potato in half quite briskly, and it was also bad, all black and horrible. For a moment she had a look of cosmic dismay on her face. Then she let out a peal of laughter that would have cracked a chandelier. And after it Mrs. Korngold had started ladling out the soup. And she paused with the ladle mid-air. After taking their supper the family went to their respective rooms.

           A great sheet of lightning and thump of thunder woke Adam who fall asleep the lightning was so bright it came right through his closed eyelids. He felt too cold to asleep and at the same time too frozen to get out of bed and find the eiderdown, which had slid somewhere. Every few minutes a great flash lit the room. And he got to thinking it must look like pretty spectacular. Adam got up and groped his way groggily along. It wasn’t only him have the same idea, he saw Mrs. Korngold was standing, fully dressed, by the window. Adam came and stood near her, all friendly, but at the next lightning flash his heart sickening thump. They observe that something happening in their garden worse than before, when it writhing about. He felt terribly frightened all. He wanted was to slink back to his room hoping she hadn’t seen him. But Mrs. Korngold caught him up by the shoulder and turned him around to face the window. He daren’t look at her, but he suddenly felt that right beside him she’d suddenly grown enormous, like the Statue of Liberty or something. “Enjoy the storm” Mrs. Korngold said. Adam saw their lake, and the hills and groves beyond it, and beyond them plains and valleys and towns lit up by the lightning. They saw great jagged mountains, with the lightning striking down into them and the thunder booming against their sides. There was one fearful peak that sprang into three fangs, so clear he thought he’d know it if he ever saw it again. Then the sea, all wild and billowing ad throwing itself against a rocky shore. The storm increased its fury. Whole forest bowed down before it and shuddering when it passed over them. Winds howled and shrieked with menace. It was tempest. It went on and on, but Mrs. Korngold just stood gazing out with contemptuous calm, defying it. Adam sit in a dentist chair and closed his eyes, and we he opened them again the lightning was almost continuous and something had changed, but he couldn’t tell what. He saw some strange buildings, sort of futuristic. He closed his eyes and fall asleep. When he open his eyes again he took a timid glance out of the window. Moon and stars were shining against a clear dark sky.

              When the Bramble family having the party for their new baby. When Adam and Lottie sat on the stairs nibbling, in an unobtrusive sort of way, and that was how they came to hear a queer snatch of conversation which floating out of the kitchen. They heard Mrs. Korngold had someone talking to. And they want to know what’s going on in the kitchen. And they heard Mrs. Korngold crying saying that “you know what I want, nothing short that will persuade me. I don’t who sent you” she said to the man. Her voiced sort of crack, with a sob in it.

              One afternoon Adam, and Lottie were alone in the Zach’s bedroom. They talk about Mrs. Korngold because they thought that she is a bit of strange. They wonder where she came from. Adam and Lottie had both similar impression about Mrs. Korngold they think that she is a refugee, they compared Mrs. Korngold in the picture that they saw. The children are very confused about the place where did Mrs. Korngold came from. They thought that Ms. Korngold should be a witch but she is good to them and their Mum likes her.

              Mrs. Korngold had come in the orchard and scraped a place clear of snow with her shoe. In her hand she had a white plastic butcher’s tray out of the fridge, slopping over with blood. While Mrs. Bramble and Adam watching Mrs. Korngold of what she was doing, they think that Mrs. Korngold does something stranger. Mrs. Korngold had turned round to come in the house. For a moment though she stood looking up at the sky. Her face was so utterly woebegone they drew back from the window, ashamed somehow to be staring at Mrs. Korngold.

              It was February, it was two weeks into the spring term. Mrs. Korngold have a visitor, a man that not looks like an ordinary climber, he was a potholer. Zach Finding Mrs. Korngold but he cannot find her. It was Mr. Swift that wants to talk with Mrs. Korngold but Mrs. Korngold avoiding him. Mrs. Korngold makes an agreement with Adam to avoid talking to Mr. Swift but Mr. Swift did not stop her. Because he have something to tell to Mrs. Korngold. Adam was called by the secretary of their school, he follow the secretary where he didn’t knew that he will meet a potholer. The potholer give a message to Adam for Mrs. Korngold it’s about her daughter. When Adam gave a message to Mrs. Korngold, she had a smile in her face. She was happy because she will see her daughter again.

             When Lottie and Adam heard the voices speaking quietly in the kitchen. They saw Mrs. Korngold, Mr. Underwood, and Cora sitting in the table. Mr. Underwood have an owl with him. They saw Mrs. Korngold grabbed hold of her daughter hand. Things held still for a moment. Whatever Mrs. Korngold was, Mr. Underwood was her equal, perhaps more than equal. A peal of thunder reverberated over the house. Mr. Underwood’s face changed from triumph to fury. Mrs. Korngold shout because she had won. Slowly Mr. Underwood released Cora, and Mrs. Korngold got her arm round her. The mother of Mrs. Korngold appears. Mrs. Korngold and Cora will be gone by that morning. Cora will be going to stay with her mother for eight or nine months, and with her uncle for the rest of the year. And Zach said that the story about Mrs. Korngold is just like Demeter and Persephone.

Art and Delivery

            Patricia Miles gives complete details about the characters in her writings. She also describes the places where the story happened and what the character does. It also gives a reader a widen imagination in reading the story.

Final Verdict

            I rate the story 3 out of 5 stars, well the story was appealing. It is interesting when it comes Mrs. Korngold. But I am not satisfied with the ending of the story.

Opposition of ROTC in K-12 Curriculum (Position Paper)

by: Jessamae C. Albiendo

         President Rodrigo Duterte proposed the revival of mandatory military training in K-12 curriculum. Duterte allegedly wants to make ROTC mandatory again to instil the “discipline” and “love of country” among the youth according to the news.

         ROTC stands for Reserve Officers Training Corps. The main purpose of ROTC programs today is to train young men and women to become an officers in military. And after graduation the students that are participating in ROTC can immediately begin serving in the military as an officers.

        In imposing the ROTC, I’m not agree in it, because it can only waste the time of the students especially in their academic performance and also because of its disadvantages that the students may encounter during their training. Additional fees for the students in buying their uniform for military training. Staying at school more than school hours, instead that the students must do another requirements in their respective subjects, and that’s one of reasons why they can’t do it and pass it within the deadline because they are busy for their training. Students may experience stress on it, because they allotted their time in their training instead that they are in their house to rest and relax their mind. In times of exam and they’ve been in their training they have no time to study because they are already exhausted to scan their notes. Moreover, the students cannot focused in their study because they may think about their training, if they can’t cope with it, they maybe get a low grade for the subject ROTC. And how about for the students that have a heart problem or the students that can experiences a problem in breathing?

            It is okay if it is not compulsory, because some students may want to focus in their specialization and some are not favoured to have that subject ROTC and they may think that they cannot benefit in it, because they don’t want to work in outdoor. It may useless for the students that the courses that they choose is not closely related to that subject. Instead they may focused their mind in their specialization course. And what will happen if some students are not interested to that training, Is there a possibility that their teacher give them a low grades?

       According to Anakbayan Chairperson Vencer Crisostomo if the ROTC becomes mandatory it will only get worse especially in hazing and abuses. ROTC program was viewed with increasing discontent, especially from the cadets themselves. Various abuses and corrupt practices were noted ranging from hazing and other forms of violence, to financial extortion.

Related Literature

Jessamae C. Albiendo

DIFFICULTIES AND PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY GREEN AMBASSADOR COLLEGE WORKING STUDENTS IN SOUTHERN CHRISTIAN COLLEGE

(HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES)

GRADE 11-A

2016-2017

CHAPTER II

RELATED LITERATURE

Working Students

            As a working student, you’ll be able to put theory into practice while still continuing with your studies. You will work in specialized areas that give you real insights into your subject and make a huge contribution to your studies. You’ll also make important contacts among your colleagues and managers – the first step in creating your own network. And of course you’ll get to know the company from the inside. Taken together, all these benefits will offer you excellent prospects for a future career (Daimler AG, 2017).

 

Reasons of Students to Work on Campus

            Depending on their financial aid packages, students may qualify for work-study positions that would allow them to receive funding to work on campus.  Most campuses maintain a central listing of work-study positions. The financial aid office typically houses such listings, and academic advisers are well positioned to share this important information with students. Depending on the campus size, students may be able to find on-campus employment that will enhance their personal and professional development. For example, there may be positions available for biology majors to work in research labs on campus. This can be advantageous to students, because it allows them to gain valuable work experience, make connections with faculty and/or staff members, and earn money to help pay for their education. Another advantage is that on-campus employers may be more flexible during busy times of the semester (such as mid-terms and finals), since they tend to be more cognizant of class loads than off-campus supervisors. Other on-campus jobs, such as working in student unions or residence halls, allow students to network and gain skills that will be attractive to future employers. Advisers can help students realize how the skills they have learned while working are transferable to future employers in their field of study (Presley, 2013).

            According to Rapacon (2015), stated that even if you work in an unrelated field, the experience can help you develop highly desirable professional skill. Working while one is still in school enhances the ability to meet deadlines. Work under pressure and effectively structure time blocks.

            Students who work off-campus jobs are more likely to feel disconnected from campus activities. According to King and Bannon (2002), nearly half of all full-time college students with jobs work hours that negatively impact on academic performance. Participation in class sometimes suffers because of lack of study time and/or fatigue from work. A study conducted by Torres, Gross, and Dadashova (2010) found that students under the age of 21 worked an average of thirty-one hours per week while enrolled as a full-time student, which influenced grade-point average and course completion. While working can help students find their true passion and gain valuable time management skills, some students are not able to find a school/work balance, which can cause academics to suffer (King & Bannon, 2002).

            Depending on the student’s employment status (part- or full-time), their ability to access campus resources may also have a negative impact on their academic performance. According to a study done by Orszag, Orszag, and Whitmore (2001), working college students face the challenge of limited hours for support services such as tutoring, health services, and libraries. In the study, 26 percent of the students working full time reported that working hindered their access during normal library hours (Orszag, Orszag, & Whitmore, 2001). Studies also showed that 40 percent of the students felt their class schedules were limited based on their work schedule. These factors not only play a role in student retention but also impact the number of years it takes students to complete their degree.

            According to Chang, Rand, and Strunk (2000), stress plays a major role in job burnout for college students. As stress levels increase, so does the likelihood that students will drop out of school and have “less attractive post-college opportunities” (Orszag, Orszag, & Whitmore, 2001).

Benefits of Working Students

            A part-time job, whether on-campus or off-campus, can help the student become a better student and get a jump on his/her career track.

Nearly 40% of undergraduates nationwide hold part-time jobs while attending college, and nearly half of these students work on-campus. Part-time work allows students to:

  • Perfect time-management skills necessary for academic success
  • Reduce reliance on student loans
  • Gain career-related experience as they clarify goals, acquire skills and self-confidence, and build a network of contacts

           Most college students take a job for the financial benefits associated with it. For some, work is absolutely necessary to help them pay for education-related expenses. For others, employment provides some basic spending money for incidentals and for treating themselves to the occasional eating out and entertainment (Levy, 2017).

           Though many students work while in school, some educators believe that working during the academic year serves as a distraction from what should be a student’s top priority: their academics. But the 2008 National Survey of Student Engagement demonstrated that working while in school was positively correlated with student engagement. Similarly, the 2009 follow-up to the 2003-04 Beginning Postsecondary Students longitudinal study (BPS:04/09) demonstrated that students who worked 1-12 hours a week had higher Bachelor’s degree attainment rates than students who did not work, but that working more than 12 hours a week caused declines in graduation rates.

           Studies show that students who work up to 12 hours a week do just as well or even better academically than those who don’t. Working only 10-12 hours a week shouldn’t affect academic grades or performance. Similarly, a part-time job can enrich the college experience. Far from being a distraction for students, working during college has proven to be one of the places where students develop two critical employment and life-related skills: teamwork and time management.

          Even working in the college dining hall or at a fast-food eatery can help students develop fundamental work habits. But, securing employment with a specific on-or off-campus employer related to the student’s field of study can provide students with the potential to deepen and enrich what they are learning in the classroom. Most importantly, working students find that part-time work experience helps them clarify their career aspirations and provides them with an advantage when seeking a full-time job after graduation (Levy, 2017).

Problems of Working Students

            Student jobs have become sort of a trend among students around the world primarily college students whereas college tuitions and finances are more high-priced and costly than high school learners. In short, the term that suits this trend is ‘Earn and Learn’ policy. Another factor is students who have no relatives or family who aspire to fulfil studies prefer to be a working student unless they’re students who comprise scholarship. Every student has their own aspirations in life, and that is the reason why some students are now working by virtue of aiming those aspirations (Study Moose, 2017).

            According to Edison (2016), stated that working while in college gives you a different perspective on the college experience. Ranging from friends to classes to jobs, all working students will understand how difficult it can get. Throughout college, you get to know all the ways that students finance their education. Some, like a student, work numerous jobs on top of going to school full-time. Some have a part-time job, others do miscellaneous work from time to time, and there are those who don’t work and/or have never worked a day in their life. When faced with having friends who have an unlimited amount of time to do whatever they want to do outside of their class and homework time, working folk have a time-management dilemma. These five basic, working college student problems highlight issues that they are faced with every day:

1. Spontaneity

            Having a set work schedule every week doesn’t leave much room for spontaneous trips, or even random coffee dates with friends who don’t have that commitment. Even friends who share the same problem, who have committed schedules for work, find difficulty in finding time to share with you amongst other friends because of conflicting work schedules. The only way you ever really have free time to spend with friends is when you take a weekend off of work in order to take a break and relax with the friends you hardly get to see.

2. Sleep

             Sleep is nonexistent to working college students. I can’t remember a night I went to bed before 3 a.m. Nights are long and mornings are dreaded. The only time we ever get any kind of rest is on the weekends and even then it’s possible that we might have an early morning shift. When we get home we still have to work on homework, and if it doesn’t take hours to finish then maybe we’ll have time to go out with some friends later that night. The question then would be, would we rather catch up on much needed sleep or have some fun and test ourselves on how much longer we can last through our sleep-deprived days?

3. Morning Classes

             Morning classes are not your friend. If I get off work at 12 a.m., get home in time to finish my homework due the next day by 2 a.m., take my shower, hop in bed, and fall asleep by 3 a.m., I do not want to wake up five hours later to make it to a 9 a.m. class, during which I will probably fall asleep. That doesn’t help my sleep-depravity or my grades. Having a 9AM class can make those absences soar. It’s a good thing colleges have attendance policies, otherwise I would not have any determination to get up in the morning.

4. Stress

       Unfortunately, having to balance a social life, work, school, and family time is extremely stressful. It’s not hard to get overwhelmed, especially when you have next-to-no time just to relax. There’s always something going on and you constantly feel as though you’re being pulled in every direction just waiting to see how long you can last before you’re stretched too thin. This probably isn’t a very healthy lifestyle, but hey, what can you do? Work is necessary for a large portion of college students in order to afford the pretty penny that college costs. Spending time with friends is an important part of our late-teen, early-adult years. Seeing your family, or even face-timing with them, can be a nice, much needed reminder of home, especially when feeling homesick. Learning to deal with the stress that follows with being a working college student, and making sure you have at least one night off a week, can bring down your stress levels ten-fold. Don’t try to overextend yourself. You know your limits, don’t pass them.

5. Priorities

        Typically when I have a paper, or a load of homework, that’s due by the end of the week, I try my best to study and finish everything the previous weekend so that I don’t have to stay up extremely late during the week. This isn’t always realistic. Working double shifts are painful, but sometimes we need those extra hours for our next paycheck. On weekends that I work double shifts, it’s likely that I’ll be way too exhausted to do my homework when I get home. Time management revolves around our minimal sleep schedules. Trying to muster the maximum amount of sleep when your schedule doesn’t allow for more than 5 hours almost every night can impact your studies, and energy level, in a negative way. There’s not enough hours in the day to allow us to do everything we need, as well as want, to do. We have to prioritize the most important things against the not-so-important things. Writing an essay for one of your classes, as opposed to watching the next show on Netflix that made your list, is probably worth higher priority.

           Hard work pays off and those who work for what they have known what it’s like to have responsibilities. The value of independence starts in college, and learning how to adapt to this lifestyle can be a difficult transition. Make sure you allot some time to yourself every so often and you have the option to relax without all the stress of the outside world. It gets better and you will eventually understand that this is a blessing in disguise.

 

Disadvantages of Working Students

            According to A Guest Author (2017), opens that the first year of college can be quite a challenge in time. It is no accident that many college students put on pounds or lose weight during their first year in college. This is due to the fact that college can be a very stressful and confusing place. There are many personal issues that are brought into the surface because of the amount of academic stress that college can inflict. With that said, college can also be a very fun time. Many people actually never have as much fun in later life as they did during their college years. Your experience totally depends on how you play the cards that you are dealt.

           One way to have a tough time in college is to work while you’re studying. While many students can handle working while studying, it’s not just for everybody. You have to weigh the pros and cons of this decision carefully or else you might be postponing your graduation date by several years, or in many cases, this might take yourself out of the graduation pool completely. Some students get so caught up in the work they have started in college that they eventually drop out.

  1. It hugs your time.

           Unless you have a lot of solid time management skills back in high school, college can be especially challenging in terms of handling your time. There are just so many things to do and not enough time to do it. In between social commitments, extracurricular activities, schoolwork, or family issues, there are way too many considerations to keep in mind. Many people can’t really juggle all those things up in the air. You have to pay careful attention to how you deal with pressure and stress as this can greatly affect you.

         If you feel that your time management skills is not up to par during your first semester in school, it’s probably best for you to hold off taking that job until you have gained a better handle on how to manage your time and achieve the results you’re looking for.

            Don’t dive into a job commitment immediately. Look at how you handle your other commitments first and then see if you can sneak in a few hours at work in your busy schedule. Keep in mind that there are many different kinds of people when it comes to time management. There are zero sum people – those that look at life’s resources as a giant pie.

          One of life’s resources is time. In zero sum mentality, if one piece of the pie gets bigger – say your schoolwork – other pieces of the pie – like family time and work – gets smaller. If you have a zero sum mentality or mindset, it’s probably a bad idea to get a job before you get a handle on your schoolwork. Once you are able to study efficiently and produce better and consistent academic results with less and less time, then that would be the best time to go out and get a job.

2. Can you handle the extra stress?

              Sure, having an extra job brings extra money but that money comes at a price. First of all, you have to sacrifice some socializing or study time so you can work. But the sacrifice doesn’t end there. All jobs, regardless of what they are, involve some level of stress. You are already stressed out enough from your schoolwork and perhaps even your personal relationships. Can you really handle the extra stress load that comes with a job? Jobs produce stress not just in terms of the actual work itself but also in terms of dealing with your co-workers. In fact, this is the number one cause of stress – interpersonal tension. Sadly, not all people at a workplace are pleasant. Not all fit smoothly with our personalities. That’s a fact of life. So you have to really be mindful of the extra-stress level a job brings. A better approach to follow would be: Once your academic stress level subsides and you have a lot more free time, maybe this would be the right time to take a job, since you’ll be more able to handle whatever stress the job may bring.

 

Advantages of Working Students

            According to Harrison (2013), there are certainly strong advantages of holding down a job during your college years.

Added cash flow

       The first and most obvious reason for getting a college job is money. For some students, getting a job may be an absolute necessity due to a tight budget. This can also be a huge help for students who don’t want to rack up credit card debt or student loan interest. Earning extra money on the side also helps kick the broke college student reputation that many college students have to bear.

Work experience

          Two things that can be gained from almost any job are experience and references. Even if your job doesn’t directly correlate to your major, having steady work experience while in college will show that you have strong work ethic and the ability to multitask. Depending on the nature of your college job, you may learn new skills that will come in handy in school and/or in the workplace after you graduate.

 Budgeting

            There’s no better way to learn how to responsibly handle finances than to do it. Nothing will teach you the value of a dollar faster than watching your hard-earned money go in and out of your bank account. Using the money that you earn from your college job will cause you to budget realistically.

Time management

            A college job can help you to develop valuable time management and organizational skills and improve your ability to focus and concentrate. Coordinating work and study can be challenging, but it can also pay off by forcing you to learn techniques to use your time as productively and efficiently as possible.

  Theoretical Framework

There are some theories related to our study which all about working students. According to the Social Work License Map (Social workers can encounter many different obstacles in their line of work. Each obstacle faced represents a different kind of challenge. However, there are a few theories that can help social workers deal with some of the challenges they are facing, and how they can be utilized to achieve positive solutions.

In general, a theory is a statement backed by evidence gathered through the scientific method intended to explain something. Theoretical approaches for social work are often used to explain human behavior and serve as starting points for practice models and treatments. For example, Psychodynamic Theory explains how internal and external forces interact to influence emotional development. Conflict Theory explains how power structures and disparities affect people’s lives. This post concentrates on how Systems Theory was developed and how it can be applied to assisting a client.

  1. Systems Theory 

          Systems Theory explains human behavior as the intersection of the influences of multiple interrelated systems. Even for individual issues, families, organizations, societies, and other systems are inherently involved and must be considered when attempting to understand and assist the individual. According to this theory, all systems are interrelated parts constituting an ordered whole and each subsystem influences other parts of the whole.

          There have been dozens of unofficial iterations of Systems Theory over the past few hundred years, applied to society, science, and many other areas. In the 20th century, multiple scientists, philosophers, and academics began to outline and define the structure of Systems Theory in their various disciplines; there are now systems theories for biology, cybernetics, and for social work. While the applications obviously vary depending on the discipline, all systems theories follow the concept of interrelated parts influencing one another as part of an ordered whole.

     Several prominent thinkers advanced Systems Theory in social work. Talcott Parsons was an economist and sociologist at Harvard University, whose book “Social System” helped steer the conversation on systematic determinants of behavior. Robert Merton is considered one of the founding fathers of modern sociology and significantly advanced Systems Theory through his progressive theories on functional analysis. Merton also coined the now ubiquitous terms “self-fulfilling prophecy” and “role model.” Carel Germain is internationally recognized for her work on explaining human behavior in a social environment. She mentored and worked extensively with Alex Gitterman, who continues to develop Systems Theory through the Life Model.

  1. Case Study in Systems Theory 

          The Pruett case study provides a concrete, real-world example of how Systems Theory is applied to understand how interrelated factors contribute to unhealthy actions. In this case, the client was engaging in risky behaviors (drug abuse and unprotected sex) and not attending school. She had not had contact with her father for five years, and some of her only memories of him involved him abusing drugs and arguing with her mother at home.

               In the Family Systems Theory, individuals must not be evaluated in isolation, but in the context of the family, as the family operates as a unit. One of the core concepts of this theory is the triangle, whose most common form is a parent-parent-child relationship — aka “two helping one”). Clearly, the client was missing one of the corners of the triangle and thus one of the pillars of healthy emotional development.

            Another concept is the family projection process, wherein the client suffers from the emotional dysfunction of the family unit. In this case, the client witnessed her father abusing drugs to self-medicate, so she imitated that behavior, thinking it might help her. The full complexities of this case go beyond the scope of this post, but it serves as an example of how a social worker must understand interrelated systems (e.g., school-family-individual) in order to assist the client.

  1. Issues Addressed by Systems Theory 

        Systems Theory is used to develop a holistic view of individuals within an environment and is best applied to situations where several systems inextricably connect and influence one another. It can be employed in cases where contextual understandings of behavior will lead to the most appropriate practice interventions.

               In the Pruett case, for example, the client’s school and family environment heavily influenced her individual actions, and her actions influenced the way she interacted with others at school and in the home. The recommended interventions thus involved strengthening the missing part of her family unit, referring her to counseling services, and connecting her with academic support. There are many practice interventions available to social workers and their applications vary greatly depending on the context, but following are a few common interventions used as part of Systems Theory.

  1. Strengthen one part of the system to improve the whole

               In the Pruett case, the social worker recommended finding a healthy father figure for the client, to strengthen the missing component of the family system.

  1. Networking and referrals

             A critical part of any social worker’s job is to help clients navigate between systems. This often means referring clients to specialists, or connecting them with resources or organizations that can help their situation. In the Pruett case, this meant referral to a counselor and connection to an after school tutor.

  1. Ecomaps

      Is a flow diagram that helps someone understand a family’s and community’s interrelated progression over time. It allows social workers and clients to capture and organize the complexity of a system.

  1. Genograms

         Is a graphic representation of a family tree, constructed with symbols that describe relationships and connections between an extended family, Social workers typically construct them along with clients in order to better understand relationships and identify patterns in the medical history.

          Understanding and applying Systems Theory is a critical part of any social worker’s career. One of the most important functions of a social worker is helping clients navigate the various systems that affect their lives, which requires a deep understanding of how subsystems are interrelated and influence one another. This post provides an introduction to Systems Theory and some real life examples of how it is applied. It is just one of the many theoretical approaches that social workers will apply throughout their careers.

 

Conceptual Framework

            In view of the literature presented, figure 1 shows how the difficulties and problems encountered by the working students can affects their studies.

Independent Variable

Problems and difficulties by the working students.

Figure 1. Conceptual Framework Showing the Variables of the Study

 

 

Figure 1. Conceptual Framework Showing the Variables of the Study

LITERATURE CITED

A Guest Author (2010). The Disadvantages of Working During College. Retrieved from http://www.communitycollegetransferstudents.com/the-disadvantages-of-working-during-college/ on January 20, 2017.

Balum, P. (2002). College Students Have Evolved From Clients to Consumers. Retrieved from http://www.ed.psu.edu/news/studentconsumers.asp on February 27, 2017.

Chang, E. C., Rand, K. L., & Strunk, D. R. (2000). Optimism and risk for job burnout among working college students: Stress as a mediator. Personality and Individual Differences29(2), 255–263.

Daimler AG. (2017). Working student Start your career while still studying. Retrieved from https://www.daimler.com/career/students/student-interns/ on January 8, 2017.

Edison, T. A. (2016). 5 Problems of a Working College Student. Retrieved from https://www.theodysseyonline.com/5-problems-of-working-college-students on January 25, 2017.

Harrison, J. (2013). Four Advantages of Working While in College. Retrieved from http://www.blackenterprise.com/career/advantages-working-while-in-college/ on January 22, 2017.

King, T., & Bannon, E. (2002). At what cost? The price that working students pay for a 
college education. The State PIRG’s Higher Education Project
. Retrieved from
http://www.pirg.org/highered/atwhatcost4_16_02.pdf on January 8, 2017.

Levy, D. (2016). The Benefits of Working While Enrolled in College. Retrieved from https://www.edvisors.com/student-employment/jobs/benefits-of-working/ on January 15, 2017.

Orszag, J. M., Orszag, P. R., & Whitmore, D. M. (2001). Learning and earning: Working in college. Commissioned by Upromise, Inc. Retrieved from http://www.brockport.edu/career01/upromise.htm on January 8, 2017.

Presley, C. K. (2013). Advising and Engaging the “Working-Class” College Student. Retrieved from http://dus.psu.edu/mentor/2013/11/advising-and-engaging-the-“working-class”-college-student/ on January 8, 2017.

Social Workers License Map, (2017).Theoretical Approaches: Social Work Systems Theory. Retrieved from http://socialworklicensemap.com/theoretical-approaches-social-work-systems-theory/ on March 8, 2017.

Study Moose (2017). Problems of Working Students essay. Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/problems-of-working-students-essay on January 25, 2017.

Torres, V., Gross, J. P., & Dadashova, A. (2010). Traditional-age students becoming at-risk:  Does working threaten college students’ academic success? Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory and Practice12(1), 51–68.

Wienberg, A. (2005). An Alternative to the Campus as Club Med. Retrieved from http://chronicle.com/weekly/v52/i02/02b01301.htm on February 27, 2017.

 

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

Jessamae C. Albiendo

DIFFICULTIES AND PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY GREEN AMBASSADOR COLLEGE WORKING STUDENTS IN SOUTHERN CHRISTIAN COLLEGE

 

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Nature and Background of the Study

            Working through college will not cover all of a student’s education expenses. It can lighten the debt burden, though, and pay off in other ways good news for the growing number of students who work while attending school (Rapacon, 2015).

            According to Perna (2010), stated that one obvious approach is for colleges and universities to reduce students’ financial need to work by reducing the rate of tuition growth and increasing need-based grants. Colleges and universities can also reduce the prevalence and intensity of employment through financial aid counseling that inform students of both the consequences of working and alternative mechanism of paying for college.

            In the Philippines, many students must work to pay the costs of attending college. Regardless of the reason for working, trying to meet the multiple and sometimes conflicting simultaneous demands of the roles of student, employee, parent, and so on often creates high levels of stress and anxiety, making it less likely that students will complete their degrees (Perna, 2010).

Statement of the Problem

                The study will seek to answer the following questions:

  1. The demographic profile of the working students that we will take, as our respondents?
  2. What is the family problem of college students that leads them to be working students?
  3. What are the common problem and difficulties encountered by the working student?; and
  4. What are the strategies used by the working students to overcome their problems?

Objectives of the study

            The aims to:

  1. Determine the demographic profile of the working students that we will take as our respondents.
  2. Determining the family problem of college students that leads them to be working students.
  3. Determining the common problem and difficulties encountered by the working student; and
  4. Determining the strategies used by the working students to overcome their problems.

Significance of the Study

            The information gathered will serves as a reference and will be beneficial to:

            The Students.  This study may benefit to the students who work and even the students who are not, for them to be more confident and possess better time-management skills to have a focus on class and work. To make themselves more responsible as a student.

            The Teachers. The result of this study may benefit for them to know the struggles that their students encountered as a working student. The reasons why their students have a promissory note in every exam. Furthermore, for they will also know why their students get a low performance in their perspective subjects.

            The Future Psychologies.  The result of this study will provide relevant information and serves for them as a reference about the College working student for future related studies.

            The Parents. This study may bring awareness to them on what are the difficulties that their children encountered as a working student.

Scope and Limitation

            This study is mainly focused among College working student in Southern Christian College. The study is limited to the Green Ambassador College working student’s school year 2016-2017 in Poblacion 5, Midsayap, North Cotabato.

 

CHAPTER 2

REVIEW AND RELATED LITERATURE

Working Students

            As a working student, you will be able to put theory into practice while continuing with your studies. You will work in specialized areas that give you real insights into your subject and make a huge contribution to your studies. You will also make important contacts among your colleagues and managers – the first step in creating your own network. In addition, of course you will get to know the company from the inside. Taken together, all these benefits will offer you excellent prospects for a future career (Daimler AG, 2017).

Reasons of Students to Work on Campus

Depending on their financial aid packages, students may qualify for work-study positions that would allow them to receive funding to work on campus.  Most campuses maintain a central listing of work-study positions. The financial aid office typically houses such listings, and academic advisers are well positioned to share this important information with students. Depending on the campus size, students may be able to find on-campus employment that will enhance their personal and professional development (Presley, 2013).

According to Rapacon (2015), stated that even if you work in an unrelated field, the experience can help you develop highly desirable professional skill. Working while one is still in school enhances the ability to meet deadlines. Work under pressure and effectively structure time blocks.

Benefits of Working Students

            A part-time job, whether on-campus or off-campus, can help the student become a better student and get a jump on his/her career track.

Nearly 40% of undergraduates nationwide hold part-time jobs while attending college, and nearly half of these students work on-campus. Part-time work allows students to:

  • Perfect time-management skills necessary for academic success
  • Reduce reliance on student loans
  • Gain career-related experience as they clarify goals, acquire skills and self-confidence, and build a network of contacts

Most college students take a job for the financial benefits associated with it. For some, work is absolutely necessary to help them pay for education-related expenses. For others, employment provides some basic spending money for incidentals and for treating themselves to the occasional eating out and entertainment (Levy, 2017).

Problems of Working Students

            Student jobs have become sort of a trend among students around the world primarily college students whereas college tuitions and finances are more high-priced and costly than high school learners. In short, the term that suits this trend is ‘Earn and Learn’ policy. Another factor is students who have no relatives or family who aspire to fulfil studies prefer to be a working student unless they are students who comprise scholarship. Every student has their own aspirations in life, and that is the reason why some students are now working by virtue of aiming those aspirations (Study Moose, 2017).

            According to Edison (2016), stated that working while in college gives you a different perspective on the college experience. Ranging from friends to classes to jobs, all working students will understand how difficult it can get. Throughout college, you get to know all the ways that students finance their education. Some, like a student, work numerous jobs on top of going to school full-time. Some have a part-time job, others do miscellaneous work from time to time, and there are those who do not work and/or have never worked a day in their life. When faced with having friends who have an unlimited amount of time to do whatever they want to do outside of their class and homework time, working folk have a time-management dilemma.

Definition of Terms

Factors. The reasons and problems of the College Working Student why they work on campus.

Green Ambassador College Working Students. These are students of Southern Christian College taking-up a job as a working student to support their studies.

Benefits. Being a worker’s students it may help them to support their fees and their financials.

Teachers. Providing knowledge and learnings to the working students by managing their time both studies and works.

Theoretical Framework

There are some theories related to our study which all about working students. According to the Social Work License Map (Social workers can encounter many different obstacles in their line of work. Each obstacle faced represents a different kind of challenge. However, there are a few theories that can help social workers deal with some of the challenges they are facing, and how they can be utilized to achieve positive solutions.

In general, a theory is a statement backed by evidence gathered through the scientific method intended to explain something. Theoretical approaches for social work are often used to explain human behavior and serve as starting points for practice models and treatments. For example, Psychodynamic Theory explains how internal and external forces interact to influence emotional development. Conflict Theory explains how power structures and disparities affect people’s lives. This post concentrates on how Systems Theory was developed and how it can be applied to assisting a client.

  1. Systems Theory 

Systems Theory explains human behavior as the intersection of the influences of multiple interrelated systems. Even for individual issues, families, organizations, societies, and other systems are inherently involved and must be considered when attempting to understand and assist the individual. According to this theory, all systems are interrelated parts constituting an ordered whole and each subsystem influences other parts of the whole.

There have been dozens of unofficial iterations of Systems Theory over the past few hundred years, applied to society, science, and many other areas. In the 20th century, multiple scientists, philosophers, and academics began to outline and define the structure of Systems Theory in their various disciplines; there are now systems theories for biology, cybernetics, and for social work. While the applications obviously vary depending on the discipline, all systems theories follow the concept of interrelated parts influencing one another as part of an ordered whole.

Several prominent thinkers advanced Systems Theory in social work. Talcott Parsons was an economist and sociologist at Harvard University, whose book “Social System” helped steer the conversation on systematic determinants of behavior. Robert Merton is considered one of the founding fathers of modern sociology and significantly advanced Systems Theory through his progressive theories on functional analysis. Merton also coined the now ubiquitous terms “self-fulfilling prophecy” and “role model.” Carel Germain is internationally recognized for her work on explaining human behavior in a social environment. She mentored and worked extensively with Alex Gitterman, who continues to develop Systems Theory through the Life Model.

  1. Case Study in Systems Theory 

The Pruett case study provides a concrete, real-world example of how Systems Theory is applied to understand how interrelated factors contribute to unhealthy actions. In this case, the client was engaging in risky behaviors (drug abuse and unprotected sex) and not attending school. She had not had contact with her father for five years, and some of her only memories of him involved him abusing drugs and arguing with her mother at home.

In the Family Systems Theory, individuals must not be evaluated in isolation, but in the context of the family, as the family operates as a unit. One of the core concepts of this theory is the triangle, whose most common form is a parent-parent-child relationship — aka “two helping one”). Clearly, the client was missing one of the corners of the triangle and thus one of the pillars of healthy emotional development.

Another concept is the family projection process, wherein the client suffers from the emotional dysfunction of the family unit. In this case, the client witnessed her father abusing drugs to self-medicate, so she imitated that behavior, thinking it might help her. The full complexities of this case go beyond the scope of this post, but it serves as an example of how a social worker must understand interrelated systems (e.g., school-family-individual) in order to assist the client.

  1. Issues Addressed by Systems Theory 

Systems Theory is used to develop a holistic view of individuals within an environment and is best applied to situations where several systems inextricably connect and influence one another. It can be employed in cases where contextual understandings of behavior will lead to the most appropriate practice interventions.

In the Pruett case, for example, the client’s school and family environment heavily influenced her individual actions, and her actions influenced the way she interacted with others at school and in the home. The recommended interventions thus involved strengthening the missing part of her family unit, referring her to counseling services, and connecting her with academic support. There are many practice interventions available to social workers and their applications vary greatly depending on the context, but following are a few common interventions used as part of Systems Theory.

  1. Strengthen one part of the system to improve the whole

In the Pruett case, the social worker recommended finding a healthy father figure for the client, to strengthen the missing component of the family system.

  1. Networking and referrals

A critical part of any social worker’s job is to help clients navigate between systems. This often means referring clients to specialists, or connecting them with resources or organizations that can help their situation. In the Pruett case, this meant referral to a counselor and connection to an after school tutor.

  1. Ecomaps

Is a flow diagram that helps someone understand a family’s and community’s interrelated progression over time. It allows social workers and clients to capture and organize the complexity of a system.

  1. Genograms

Is a graphic representation of a family tree, constructed with symbols that describe relationships and connections between an extended family, Social workers typically construct them along with clients in order to better understand relationships and identify patterns in the medical history.

Understanding and applying Systems Theory is a critical part of any social worker’s career. One of the most important functions of a social worker is helping clients navigate the various systems that affect their lives, which requires a deep understanding of how subsystems are interrelated and influence one another. This post provides an introduction to Systems Theory and some real life examples of how it is applied. It is just one of the many theoretical approaches that social workers will apply throughout their careers.

Conceptual Framework

            In view of the literature presented, figure 1 shows how the difficulties and problems encountered by the working students can affects their studies.

Independent Variable

Problems and difficulties by the working students.

 

Dependent Variable

Studies of working students

Figure 1. Conceptual Framework Showing the Variables of the Study

 

CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

Research Design

          Descriptive survey design will use in evaluating the College working students belongs to Green Ambassador through survey interviews to know the difficulties and struggles they encountered.

Locale of the Study

            The study will be conducted among Green Ambassador College working students in Southern Christian College in Pobalacion 5, Midsayap, Cotabato school year 2016-2017.

Selection of Respondents

            The respondents of this study were the working students. Specifically, the Green Ambassador college working student who are still continuing their studies in SCC who only received a monthly salary of 1,100 pesos per month. Limited of 50 respondents.

Research Instruments

            The researchers will use a research-made questionnaire in gathering the necessary data. It contained questions on demographic profile of the respondents and identified their background problem and struggles they always encountered as a working student. In addition, we will using convenience sampling to collect data from the respondents.

Data Collection Procedure

            Before gathering the data, the researchers will ask the approval and consent to the SAO office and SHS Principal for the survey that will be going to conduct. The questionnaire will be personally distributed and collected by the researchers to the respondents.

Data Analysis

            The study will utilize first hand data taken through distributed of the survey questionnaire and a focus group discussion. The researchers will translate the interview from the local language to English if there are some students who do not understand English-word directly. Then transcription will be processed and presented by themes.

 

 

 

Work Schedule

Activities November December January February March
Planning for Thesis that we will going to conduct        
Research Proposal        
Gathering Data Collection        
Final Research Defense        
Final Research Report        

 

 

 

 

 

Budgetary Requirements

Printed for Research Proposal ₱15.00
Printed Questionnaire ₱50.00
Snacks while Computing the Data ₱150.00
Snacks while Editing the Final Research Report ₱50.00
Printed Final Research Report ₱35.00
Folders ₱15.00
Total Amount: ₱300.00

 

Literature Cited

Daimler AG. (2017). Working student Start your career while still studying. Retrieved from https://www.daimler.com/career/students/student-interns/ on January 8, 2017.

Edison, T. A. (2016). 5 Problems of a Working College Student. Retrieved from https://www.theodysseyonline.com/5-problems-of-working-college-students on January 25, 2017.

Levy, D. (2017). The Benefits of Working While Enrolled in College. Retrieve from https://www.edvisor.com/student-employment/jobs/bebefits-of-working/ on January 15, 2017.

Presley, C. K. (2013). Advising and Engaging the “Working-Class” College Student. Retrieved from http://dus.psu.edu/mentor/2013/11/advising-and-engaging-the-“working-class”-college-student/ on January 8, 2017.

Rapacon, S. (2015).  More college students are working while studying. Retrieved from http://www.cnbc.com/2015/10/29/more-college-students-are-working-while-studying.html on December 8, 2016.

Social Workers License Map, (2017).Theoretical Approaches: Social Work Systems Theory. Retrieved from http://socialworklicensemap.com/theoretical-approaches-social-work-systems-theory/ on March 8, 2017.

Study Moose (2017). Problems of Working Students essay. Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/problems-of-working-students-essay on January 25, 2017.

Research Report

Jessamae C. Albiendo

DIFFICULTIES AND PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY GREEN AMBASSADOR COLLEGE WORKING STUDENTS IN SOUTHERN CHRISTIAN COLLEGE

(HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES)

GRADE 11-A

2016-2017

 

Abstract

          The difficulties and problems encountered by the Green Ambassadors College working students.  In this study has explored and find out the demographic profile of the college students who are one of the working students, and wanted to know the problems in terms of their family problem and personal problem, and by all of those problems and difficulties we want to find/know their coping mechanism they used to overcome those problems they encountered. We used quantitative method. The study shows the family factors of the students such as financial problem, unemployed parents, having more siblings, broken family, unsupported parents. It can affect them being working students to be more stress, hard to managing their time both study and in school, not sleeping well, late in morning classes, and having low of academic performance. Furthermore, working students used some strategies or coping mechanism to overcome those problems such as being optimistic, work hard, manage their time wisely, listening to music, and also to asking help from someone. Nevertheless, students highlighted the benefits of working that included acquiring relevant skills, perfect time-management skills necessary for academic success, reduce reliance on student loans, and gain career-related experience as they clarify goals, acquire skills and self-confidence, and build a network of contacts. Students’ in the study acknowledged it was not the responsibility of the school to monitor part-time employment. There were calls for a greater understanding of the financial situation school students’ face in today’s society.

 

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Nature and Background of the Study          

            Working through college will not cover all of a student’s education expenses. It can lighten the debt burden, though, and pay off in other ways good news for the growing number of students who work while attending school (Rapacon, 2015). One obvious approach is for colleges and universities to reduce students’ financial need to work by reducing the rate of tuition growth and increasing need-based grants. Colleges and universities can also reduce the prevalence and intensity of employment through financial aid counseling that inform students of both the consequences of working and alternative mechanism of paying for college. Nonetheless, given the recent economic recession (and its implications for tuition, financial aid, and students’ financial resources) as well as the centrality of jobs to students’ identities, many will likely continue to work substantial numbers of hours (Perna, 2010).

           In the Philippines, working is now a fundamental responsibility for many undergraduates. However, understanding how employment affects students’ educational experiences is complicated by why students work. Many students must work to pay the costs of attending college. Regardless of the reason for working, trying to meet the multiple and sometimes conflicting simultaneous demands of the roles of student, employee, parent, and so on often creates high levels of stress and anxiety, making it less likely that students will complete their degrees (Perna, 2010).

          Southern Christian College is one of the most abundant school here in Midsayap, offer a good quality of education in every students who belong there. College degree is one of the best investment we could ever have in our life, it is not easy for being student’s not in academic, but in financial budgets, especially when it don’t have a money that cant’ continually support for the fees in every semester. However, some of the student do not have the financial capacity to semi-annually enroll for four years, because of insufficient amount of money to use. Therefore, some students need a part time job, to set themselves as a working student in the mentioned school, and its make them stressful and didn’t concentrate their class well, also their both study and family too.

Statement of the Problem

            This study will examine the SAO Green Ambassadors College working students who only received 1,100 pesos per month in Southern Christian College. Specifically, the study will seek to answer the following questions:

  1. The demographic profile of the working students that we will take, as our respondents?
  2. What is the family problem of college students that leads them to be working students?
  3. What are the common problem and difficulties encountered by the working student?; and
  4. What are the strategies used by the working students to overcome their problems

 

 

Objectives of the study

          The study will determine the factors behind the workers, Green Ambassador in Southern Christian College. Specifically the study aims to:

  1. Determine the demographic profile of the working students that we will take as our respondents.
  2. Determining the family problem of college students that leads them to be working students.
  3. Determining the common problem and difficulties encountered by the working student; and
  4. Determining the strategies used by the working students to overcome their problems.

Significance of the Study

The information gathered will serves as a reference and will be beneficial to:

            The Students.  This study may benefit to the students who work and even the students who are not, for them to be more confident and possess better time-management skills to have a focus on class and work. To make themselves more responsible as a student.

            The Teachers. The result of this study may benefit for them to know the struggles that their students encountered as a working student. The reasons why their students have a promissory note in every exam. Furthermore, for they will also know why their students get a low performance in their perspective subjects.

The Future Psychologies.  The result of this study will provide relevant information and serves for them as a reference about the College working student for future related studies.

The Parents. This study may bring awareness to them on what are the difficulties that their children encountered as a working student.

Scope and Limitation

            This study is mainly focused among College working student in Southern Christian College. The study is limited to the Green Ambassador College working students school year 2016-2017 in Poblacion 5, Midsayap, North Cotabato.

CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

           This chapter will describe the researcher’s procedure. It contains the research method and design, locale and respondents of the study, instrument of the study, data gathering procedure and data analysis used.

Research Design

            Descriptive survey design will use in evaluating the College working students belongs to Green Ambassador through survey interviews to know the difficulties and struggles they encountered.

Locale of the Study

            The study will be conducted among Green Ambassador College working students in Southern Christian College in Pobalacion 5, Midsayap, Cotabato school year 2016-2017.

Selection of Respondents

            The respondents of this study were the working students. Specifically, the Green Ambassador college working student who are still continuing their studies in SCC who only received a monthly salary of 1,100 pesos per month. Limited of 50 respondents.

Research Instruments

            The researchers will use a research-made questionnaire in gathering the necessary data. It contained questions on demographic profile of the respondents and identified their background problem and struggles they always encountered as a working student. In addition, we will using convenience sampling to collect data from the respondents.

Data Collection Procedure

            Before gathering the data, the researchers will ask the approval and consent to the SAO office and SHS Principal for the survey that will be going to conduct. The questionnaire will be personally distributed and collected by the researchers to the respondents.

Data Analysis

            The study will utilize first hand data taken through distributed of the survey questionnaire and a focus group discussion. The researchers will translate the interview from the local language to English if there are some students who do not understand English-word directly. Then transcription will be processed and presented by themes.

CHAPTER IV

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

          This chapter presents the results and discussion of the study on difficulties and problems by green ambassador college working students in Southern Christian College, Midsayap, Cotabato for the school year 2016-2017. The data are shown in tabular form.

Demographic Profile of the Respondents

Age

            Table 1.1 shows that out of 50 respondents, 19 years old got the highest percentage with 28% of the respondents and the other are 18 years old with 26%, 21 years old and above with 22%, 20 years old with 16%, and 17 years old with 8%. Most of the respondents are in the age of 19 years old.

 Table 1.1 Frequency and percentage distribution of the respondents according to age.

Age (f) (%)
17 4 8
18 13 26
19 14 28
20 8 16
21 and above 11 22
Total 50 100

 

Gender

            Table 1.2 shows that out of the 50 respondents, 35 (70%) are female and 15 (30%) are male. Hence, in this study, there were more female respondents than male.

Table 1.2 Frequency and percentage distribution of the respondents according to gender.

Gender (f) (%)
Female 35 70
Male 15 30
Total 50 100

                                                       

Civil Status

            Table 1.3 shows that out of 50 respondents, 49 (98%) were single and 1 (2%) was married.

Table 1.3 Frequency and percentage distribution of the respondents according to civil status.

Civil Status (f) (%)
Single 49 98
Married 1 2
Total 50 100

 

Results of the Data According to the Problem/Factors by the Working Students

Family Problem                                                                   

            Table 2 shows that out of the 50 respondents, 43 (86%) said yes that one of their problem is financial and 7 (14%) said no, 21 (42%) said yes that their parents are unemployed and 29 (58%) said no, 15 (30%) said yes that they have a many siblings and 35 (70%) said no, 3 (6%) said yes that they are a broken family problem and 47 (94%) said no, and lastly 3 (6%) said yes that they have the unsupported parents and 47 (94%) said no. Most of the respondents (43) said yes that financial problem is one of their major problem.

 

Table 2. Frequency and percentage distribution of the respondents according to their family problem.

Family Problem Financial problem Unemployed parents Having more siblings Broken family Unsupportive parents
(f)      % (f)       % (f)      % (f)      % (f)     %
(f) yes 43 86% 21 42% 15 30% 3 6% 3 6%
(f) no 7 14% 29 58% 35 70% 47 94% 47 94%
TOTAL 50 100% 50 100% 50 100% 50 100% 50 100%

 

Problem and Difficulties Encountered by the College Working Students

            Table 3 shows that out of the 50 respondents, 43 (84%) said yes that they encountered problem being stress and 8 (16%) are no , 38 (76%) said yes that they did not manage their time well both in school and work and 12 (24%) respondents said no, 28 (56%) said yes that they encountered by being not sleeping well and 22 (44%) said no, 19 (38%) said yes that one of their problem are late in morning classes and 31 (62%) said no,  and 6 (12%) said yes that they encountered having low academic performance and 44 (88%) said no. Which means that most of the respondents (42) encountered problem is being stress.

Table 3. Frequency and percentage distribution of the respondents according to their Problem and Difficulties Encountered

Problem and Difficulties encountered Stress Managing time both study and school Not sleeping well Late in morning classes Low academic performance
(f)    % (f)     % (f)     % (f)     % (f)     %  
(f) yes 42 84% 38 76% 28 56% 19 38% 6 12%
(f)  no 8 16% 12 24% 22 44% 31 62% 44 88%
TOTAL 50 100% 50 100% 50 100% 50 100% 50 100%

 

Results of the Data according to the Coping Mechanism used by the Working Students

Coping mechanism Used by the Working Students to Overcome their Problem

            Table 4 shows that out of the 50 respondents, almost 50 (100%) respondents said yes that work hard is one of the coping mechanism they must use to overcome their problems and no one (0) could say  no, 44 (88%) said yes that being optimistic and 6 (12%) said no, 42 (84%) said yes that managing time wisely is the one of their coping mechanism used and 8 (16%) said no, 36 (72%) said yes that listening to music is one of their coping mechanism and 14 (28%) said no, and 35 (70%) said yes that asking help from someone is one of their coping mechanism and 15 (30%) said no. Moreover, almost of the respondents (50) using the coping mechanism is working hardly to overcome their problem.

 

Table 4. Frequency and percentage distribution of the respondents according to their coping mechanism used to overcome their problems.

Coping mechanism  used to overcome the problem Work hard Being optimistic Managing time wisely Listening to music Asking help from someone
(f)    % (f)     % (f)    % (f)    % (f)      %    
(f) yes 50 100% 44 88% 42 84% 36 72% 35 70%
(f)  no 0 0 6 12% 8 16% 14 28% 15 30%
TOTAL 50 100% 50 100% 50 100% 50 100%

 

50 100%

 

 

Discussion

            Working students have more responsibilities in school campus. Here in Southern Christian College, we senior high school students conduct a study about college working students by knowing their difficulties and problem that they always encountered.

           In chapter two about our study, there are no statements if how was big the population of female rather than in male working students, age limit and what are their status profile as they lead themselves as a working students in a particular school. But in our finding data we found out that working students here in Southern Christian College has more female college working students out of our 50 respondents we have a 35 female and only 15 male respondents, which means there had a big population of girls working students. In addition there are some students are already married that is continuing their studies as they are also a working students just to finish their degrees in college.

           Moreover, about the factors by the students we found out that being working student have an effectiveness of them, which are the advantages and disadvantages. The problems they encountered that leads them to get a job inside the campus just to support their studies here in said school.

          College students who are a working students on campus had some factors and reasons in term of their family problem. According to Presley (2013), stated that financial aid packages, students may qualify for work-study positions that would allow them to receive funding to work on campus and also Study of Moose (2017), stated that college tuitions and finances are more high-priced and costly than high school learners in our finding data from our respondents we found out that the family problem of the working students is financial which the main factors, leads them to work, if we compared it from the idea between Presley (2013) and the Study of Moose were intimately the same in our findings.

           Moreover, when the students become one of the working students in campus, problem will be emerge to the students’ life as being pupil while working in school campus. Furthermore, Edison (2016), said that working college student problems highlight issues that they are faced with every day which are the following; spontaneity, sleep, morning classes, stress, and priorities.  Based on the survey, we also found out that stress is the particularly common problem, also this is the one expected of disadvantage in study while doing work in campus, it is based on the data from our respondents, on what they have chosen problem and difficulties in the survey questionnaire that has distributed

           In addition, working students is not a working students if they did not work hard so working students mostly used it as a coping mechanism to overcome those problems and difficulties they are always encountered in their daily life both in school and at home even in society. According to Levy (2007), says that a part-time job, whether on-campus or off-campus, can help the student become a better student and get a jump on his/her career track, the working students develop by perfect time-management skills necessary for academic success, reduce reliance on student loans, gain career-related experience as they clarify goals, acquire skills and self-confidence, and build a network of contacts. Working students will slowly develop their skills, in terms ability and capability as a students and working students in school campus.

 

 

LITERATURE CITED

Perna, L. (2010). Understanding the Working College Student. Retrieved from http://www.aaup.org/article/understanding-workng-colege-styudents#.WFX149xGLJY on December 8, 2016.

Rapacon, S. (2015).  More college students are working while studying. Retrieved from http://www.cnbc.com/2015/10/29/more-college-students-are-working-while-studying.html on December 8, 2016.

 

 

FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS OF SCC IN THEIR CHOICE OF STRAND

Allysa Mae Anuada

 

Abstract. This study was aimed at finding out the factors that influenced Grade 11 Senior High School student of Southern Christian College, Midsayap, Cotabato in their choice of strand for the 2nd semester of the school year 2016-2017.This study utilized descriptive statistics using percentage to analyze the data gathered. The respondents of the study were 80 Grade 11 Senior High School students with 37 male students and 43 female students .Result showed that the foremost factor that influenced Senior High School Students in their choice of strand was personality with a percentage of     while future opportunities was the least factor that influenced their choice of strand with a percentage of       

Introduction. A career choice is important because it determines your success in the next stages of your life (PAMS, n.d). One of the tasks of high school students is to explore and plan for their postsecondary career options. High school students are at the exploration stage of career development. Many factors affect career choices of high school students. Identifying these factors would give parents, educators, and industry an idea as to where students place most of their trust in career selection process (Super, 1990).

Senior High School is two years of specialized upper secondary education; students may choose a specialization based on aptitude, interests, and school capacity. Each student in Senior High School can choose among three tracks: Academic; Technical-Vocational-Livelihood; and Sports and Arts. The Academic track includes three strands: Accountancy, Business Management (ABM); Humanities and Social Sciences (HUMSS); and Science, Technology, Engineering, Agriculture, and Mathematics (STEAM). The choice of career track will define the content of the subjects a student will take in Grades 11 and 12 (Official Gazette, 2012).

On the first semester SHS students were divided by their chosen strand. However, for this second semester there are SHS students who opt to transfer to the other strand. It is in this context that the proponents of the study would like to determine the factors that influence SHS student of SCC in the choice of strand.

This study is aimed at finding the factors that influence the senior high school students in their chosen strand. It seeks answers to the following questions:  What are the factors that influences senior high school students in choosing their strand and what is the demographic profile of senior high school students who choose their specialization in terms of: (a) Ideal Jobs, (b) Personality (c) Family and (d) Peer/Classmate.  The result of the study may provide them information on the most and least influential factors of Senior High School students in choosing their strand. The result will help the faculty members in their programs to guide students in choosing the strand for themselves. This study may give information on the factors that influence Senior High School students in choosing their strand. This study may serve as reference for other researchers who may be interested in the same problem and in others that are related to it. This study was focused on the factors that influence the senior high school students in choosing their strand. Only the Senior High School students enrolled in the 2nd semester at Southern Christian College (SCC) in the school year 2016-2017

Methods

Descriptive survey design was used in determining the factors that influence Senior High School track/strand. Two sections from the four track/strands specially for HUMSS sections B and C, for STEAM sections G and H, for ABM sections O and P, for TVL sections L and N. The researchers asked permission from the principal of senior high school to conduct the study. Upon approval, the questionnaire was administered by the researchers to the respondents in the school campus. The data gathered was tabulated by statistical analysis.

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

            This chapter deals with the results and discussion of the data collected from the respondents.

Demographic Profile of the Respondents

            Figure 1 shows  that out of 80 respondents, 37 (46%) were males and 43 (54%) were females. Hence, female respondents are more than male.

Figure 1. Demographic Profile of the Respondents according to Sex

Sex Frequency (f) Percentage (%)
Male 37 46
Female 43 54
Total 80 100

 

Figure 2 shows that out of 80 respondents, 20 (25%) were 16 years old, 56 (70%) were 17 years old and 4 (5%) were 18 years old. Hence, the 17 years old is the highest percentage than the 16 and 18 years old.

 

Figure 2. Demographic Profile of the Respondents according to Age

Age Frequency (f) Percentage (%)
16 20 25%
17 56 70%
18 4 5%
Total 80 100%

 

Factor that influence Senior High School Students in choosing their Strand according to Personality

            Table 1 shows that out of 80 respondents under personality, 76 (95%) agreed that the strong desire for the strand is one of the factors that  influence them in choosing  their strand and 4 (5%) disagree, 61(76.25%) agreed that the self-image help them to choose their strand and 19 (23.75%) disagreed, 65 (81.25%)  agreed that the grades were one of the factors that influence them in choosing their strand and 15 (18.75%) disagreed, 51 (63.75%) agreed that gender is one of the factors that help them in choosing their strand and 29 (36.25%) disagreed. Students must take seriously the role grades play in limiting opportunities in the future. As Splaver went on to say “It is important for you to have a good understanding of yourself, your personality, if you are to make intelligent career plans”. (Splaver 2000, p. 12)

 

Table 1. The percentage distribution of the respondents according to their Personality.

Personality Strong desire for the strand Self-image Grades Gender
  f % f % f % f %
Agree 76 95% 61 76.25% 65 81.25% 51 63.75%
Disagree 4 5% 19 23.75% 15 18.75% 29 36.25%
TOTAL 80 100% 80 100% 80 100% 80 100%

 

Factor that influence Senior High School Students in Choosing their Strand according to Family

               Table 2 shows that out of 80 respondents under family, 53 (66.25%) agreed that their choice of strand  is based on  the family decision  and 27 (33.75%) disagreed, 41 (51.25%) agreed that the financial status of the family is also one of their basis in choosing their strand and 39 (48.75%) disagreed. One consistent finding in research suggests that adolescents’ own aspirations are influenced by their parent’s aspirations or expectations. Parental support and encouragement are important factors that have been found to influence career choice. Children may choose what their parents desire simply to please them (Taylor et al, 2004) 

 

Table 2. The percentage distribution of the respondents according to their family

Family Family decision Financial status of the family
  f % f %
Agree 53 66.25% 41 51.25%
Disagree 27 33.75% 39 48.75%
TOTAL 80 100% 80 100%

 

Factor that influence Senior High School Students in Choosing their Strand according to Future Opportunities

            Table 3 shows that out of 80 respondents under future opportunities, 66 (82.5%) agreed that job opportunities is one influence in their choice of strand and 14 (17.5%) disagreed, 46 (57.5%) agreed that employment demand is a basis that help them to choose their strand and 34 (42.5%) disagreed, 69 (86.25%) agreed that career goal is the one of the influences in choosing their strand and 11 (13.75%) disagreed. Opportunity may influence how students have perceived their future in terms of the reasonable probability of a future in particular career fields. The issue of poverty has played an important determining role in the opportunities available to all (McQuerrey, 2006)

 

Table 3. The percentage distribution of the respondents according to the future opportunities

Future Opportunities Job opportunities Employment demand Career goal
f % f % f %
Agree 66 82.5% 46 57.5% 69 86.25%
Disagree 14 17.5% 34 42.5% 11 13.75%
TOTAL 80 100% 80 100% 80 100%

 

 Factor that influence Senior High School Students in Choosing their Strand according to K-12 program

               Table 4 shows that out of 80 respondents, 51 (63.75%) agreed that the teachers were one of the influences in choosing their strand, and 29 (36.25%) disagreed, 57 (72.25%) agreed that the subjects help them to choose their strand and 23 (28.75%) disagreed, 58 (72.5%) agreed that the topics/lessons are one of the influences that choosing their strand and 22 (27.55) disagreed. The choice of career track will define the content of the subjects a student will take in Grades 11 and 12. (Official Gazette, 2012).The K-12 program offers a decongested 12-year program that gives students sufficient time to master skills and absorb basic competencies. (K-12 Philippines, 2015) Teachers like parents are viewed as key players in the career paths that young people eventually pursue especially girls (Barnett 2007). Such constructs including curricular subjects, quality of teaching, student participation in school activities, school practices and policies and learning materials for the student were found to impact on career

choice among learners (Bojuwoye and Mbanjwa 2006).

 

Table 4. The percentage distribution of the respondents according to the K-12 program

K-12 Program Teachers Subjects Topics/lessons
f % f % f %
Agree 51 63.75% 57 71.25% 58 72.5%
Disagree 29 36.25% 23 28.75% 22 27.5%
TOTAL 80 100% 80 100% 80 100%

 

Factor that influence Senior High School Students in Choosing their Strand according to Peer Influence

Table 5 shows that out of 80 respondents, 55 (68.75%) agreed that their classmates influenced them in choosing their strand and 25 (31.25%) disagreed, 54 (67.5%) agreed that their close friends were the ones who influenced them to choose their strand and 26 (32.5%) disagreed, 55 (68.75%) agreed that their special friends influenced them to choose their strand and 25 (31.25%) disagreed. Friends may influence an individual choice of career . Individual interest may be affected. Classmates also play an important role in the formation of student’s achievement, related beliefs and values , even if these classmates do not always correspond with the peer group of leisure-time friends (Frenzel, Goets, Pekrun & Watt , 2010)fected by peers for the reason that one wants to be with them in fulfilling dreams or a certain career .

 

Table 5. The percentage distribution of the respondents according to their peer influence

Peer Influence Classmates Close friends Special friends
  f % f % f %
Agree 55 68.75% 54 67.5% 55 68.75%
Disagree 25 31.25% 26 32.5% 25 31.25%
Total 80 100% 80 100% 80 100%

 

 Factor that influence Senior High School Students in Choosing their Strand according to Skills

Table 6 shows that out of 80 respondents, 67 (83.75%) agreed that communication skills is one of the factors that  influenced them to choose their strand and 13 (16.25%) disagreed, 62 (77.5%) said that manipulation is one of the skills they have that influenced them  in choosing their strand and 14 (22.5%) disagreed, 60 (75%) agreed that kinesthetic skill help them on choosing their strand and 20 (25%) disagreed, 44 (55%) agreed that retention is one of their skills that influenced in choosing their strand and 36 (45%) disagreed, 57 (71.25%) agreed that problem solving skills that help them to choose their strand and 23 (28.75%) disagreed, 64 (80%) agreed that critical thinking is one of their skills that influenced them to choose their strand and 16 (20%) disagreed. Perception of being suitable for particular jobs also has been found to be influenced by a number of factors including ethnic background, year in school, level of achievement, choice of science subjects, attitudes and differences in job characteristics (McQuaid and Bond, 2003). The K to 12 Program covers Kindergarten and 12 years of basic education (six years of primary education, four years of Junior High School, and two years of Senior High School [SHS]) to provide sufficient time for mastery of concepts and skills, develop lifelong learners, and prepare graduates for tertiary education, middle-level skills development, employment, and entrepreneurship.

 

Table 5. The percentage distribution of the respondents according to their skills

Skills Communication Manipulation Kinesthetic Retention Problem solving Critical thinking
  f % f % f % f % f % f %
Agree 67 83.75% 62 77.5% 60 75% 44 55% 57 71.25% 64 80%
Disagree 13 16.25% 14 22.5% 20 25% 36 45% 23 28.75% 16 20%
TOTAL 80 100% 80 100% 80 100% 80 100% 80 100% 80 100%

 

Conclusion

Majority of the respondents were female and 17 years old in terms of the sex and age of the respondents according to their demographic profile. Personality is the foremost factors that influence Senior High School Students in choosing their track/strand which may have attributed to the account that personality plays an important role in choosing the right career as stated in Splaver (2000). Future Opportunity is the least factor that influence them in choosing their strand. Opportunity may influence how student perceived their future in terms of the reasonable probability of a future in a particular field (McQuerrey,2006).

References

HubPages Inc. 2016. Why Does the Philippines Need the K-12 Education System? Retrieved from https://soapboxie.com/social-issues/The-Implementation-o-the-K-12-Program-in-the-Philippine-Basic-Education-Curriculum on December 17, 2016

Iproject, 2016.             Factors affecting choice of career among senior secondary school students Retrieved from iproject.com.nj/education/factors-affecting-choice-of-career-among-senior-secondary-school-students on December 20, 2016

K12Philippines, 2015. What is K12? Retrieved from http://k12philippines.com/ on December 17,    2016

Official Gazette, 2016. The K to 12 Basic Education Program Retrieved  from http://www.gov.ph/k-12-old/#about on December 17, 2016

Pams, n.d. What is CAREER CHOICE? Retrieved from psychologydictionary.org/career-    choice/ on December 20, 2016

Tang, 2008. Factors Influencing High School Students’ Career Aspirations Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/42732837?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents on December 20, 2016

What is senior high school? n.d.  Republic of the Philippines. Department of Education. Retrieved from    http://www.deped.gov.ph/k-to-12/faq/senior-high-school on December 17, 2016

McQuerrey, 2006. Influences Career Path Decisions. Retrieved from            http://work.chron.com/influences-                career-path-decisions-12307.html on January 27,              2017.

Splaver, 2000 and Taylor et al, 2004 as cited in SALAMI OLUFUNMILAYO OLAMIDE, 2013.      The             Factors Determining the Choice of Career Among SecondarySchool Students.          Retrieved from             http://www.theijes.com/papers/v2-i6/Part.2/E0262033044.pdf on          January 27, 2017.

McQuaid and Bond, 2003 as cited in Kochung Edwards, 2011. Factors Influencing Students            Career Choices among Secondary School students in Kisumu Municipality, Kenya. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/62e6/25de57c8a8bd923eaab9b20728762a18cd12.pdf on        January  27, 2017.

Kroll,Dinklage, Lee, Morley, & Wilson, 1970 as cited in Borchert, 2002. CAREER CHOICE FACTORS OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS The Graduate CollegeUniversity of      Wisconsin Stout. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/cc33/53c1f92d68d94da36ba41542b2c9e9793095.pdf on             January 27, 2017.

Weishew and Penk 1993, Garrahy2001 ,Bojuwoye and Mbanjwa 2006, Spade2001, Barnett             2007 As cited in Almon Shumba1 andMatsidiso Naong. Factors Influencing Students’            Career Choice andAspirations in South Africa. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/887a/332400facffd4663329391d8d15a2bb8c29c.pdf on              January  27, 2017